# 1.11 Auger electron spectroscopy

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## Basic principles

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is one of the most commonly employed surface analysis techniques. It uses the energy of emitted electrons to identify the elements present in a sample, similar to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The main difference is that XPS uses an X-ray beam to eject an electron while AES uses an electron beam to eject an electron. In AES, the sample depth is dependent on the escape energy of the electrons. It is not a function of the excitation source as in XPS. In AES, the collection depth is limited to 1-5 nm due to the small escape depth of electrons, which permits analysis of the first 2 - 10 atomic layers. In addition, a typical analysis spot size is roughly 10 nm. A representative AES spectrum illustrating the number of emitted electrons, N, as a function of kinetic energy, E, in direct form (red) and in differentiated form (black) is shown in [link] .

Like XPS, AES measures the kinetic energy (E k ) of an electron to determine its binding energy (E b ). The binding energy is inversely proportional to the kinetic energy and can be found from [link] , where hν is the energy of the incident photon and ΔΦ is the difference in work function between the sample and the detector material.

${E}_{b}=\mathrm{h\nu }-{E}_{k}+\mathrm{\Delta \Phi }$

Since the E b is dependent on the element and the electronic environment of the nucleus, AES can be used to distinguish elements and their oxidation states. For instance, the energy required to remove an electron from Fe 3+ is more than in Fe 0 . Therefore, the Fe 3+ peak will have a lower E k than the Fe 0 peak, effectively distinguishing the oxidation states.

## Auger process

An Auger electron comes from a cascade of events. First, an electron beam comes in with sufficient energy to eject a core electron creating a vacancy (see [link] A). Typical energies of the primary electrons range from 3 - 30 keV. A secondary electron (imaging electron) of higher energy drops down to fill the vacancy (see [link] B) and emits sufficient energy to eject a tertiary electron (Auger electron) from a higher shell (see [link] C).

The shells from which the electrons move from lowest to highest energy are described as the K shell, L shell, and M shell. This nomenclature is related to quantum numbers. Explicitly, the K shell represents the 1s orbital, the L shell represents the 2s and 2p orbitals, and the M shell represents the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals. The cascade of events typically begins with the ionization of a K shell electron, followed by the movement of an L shell electron into the K shell vacancy. Then, either an L shell electron or M shell electron is ejected. It depends on the element, which peak is prevalent but often both peaks will be present. The peak seen in the spectrum is labeled according to the shells involved in the movement of the electrons. For example, an electron ejected from a gold atom could be labeled as Au KLL or Au KLM.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
how I can reaction of mercury?