# Crystal structure  (Page 2/9)

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The cubic lattice is the most symmetrical of the systems. All the angles are equal to 90°, and all the sides are of the same length ( a = b = c ). Only the length of one of the sides ( a ) is required to describe this system completely. In addition to simple cubic, the cubic lattice also includes body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic ( [link] ). Body-centered cubic results from the presence of an atom (or ion) in the center of a cube, in addition to the atoms (ions) positioned at the vertices of the cube. In a similar manner, a face-centered cubic requires, in addition to the atoms (ions) positioned at the vertices of the cube, the presence of atoms (ions) in the center of each of the cubes face.

The tetragonal lattice has all of its angles equal to 90°, and has two out of the three sides of equal length ( a = b ). The system also includes body-centered tetragonal ( [link] ).

In an orthorhombic lattice all of the angles are equal to 90°, while all of its sides are of unequal length. The system needs only to be described by three lattice parameters. This system also includes body-centered orthorhombic, base-centered orthorhombic, and face-centered orthorhombic ( [link] ). A base-centered lattice has, in addition to the atoms (ions) positioned at the vertices of the orthorhombic lattice, atoms (ions) positioned on just two opposing faces.

The rhombohedral lattice is also known as trigonal, and has no angles equal to 90°, but all sides are of equal length ( a = b = c ), thus requiring only by one lattice parameter, and all three angles are equal (α = β = $\gamma$ ).

A hexagonal crystal structure has two angles equal to 90°, with the other angle ( $\gamma$ ) equal to 120°. For this to happen, the two sides surrounding the 120° angle must be equal ( a = b ), while the third side ( c ) is at 90° to the other sides and can be of any length.

The monoclinic lattice has no sides of equal length, but two of the angles are equal to 90°, with the other angle (usually defined as β) being something other than 90°. It is a tilted parallelogram prism with rectangular bases. This system also includes base-centered monoclinic ( [link] ).

In the triclinic lattice none of the sides of the unit cell are equal, and none of the angles within the unit cell are equal to 90°. The triclinic lattice is chosen such that all the internal angles are either acute or obtuse. This crystal system has the lowest symmetry and must be described by 3 lattice parameters ( a , b , and c ) and the 3 angles (α, β, and $\gamma$ ).

## Atom positions and crystal axes

The structure of a crystal is defined with respect to a unit cell. As the entire crystal consists of repeating unit cells, this definition is sufficient to represent the entire crystal. Within the unit cell, the atomic arrangement is expressed using coordinates. There are two systems of coordinates commonly in use, which can cause some confusion. Both use a corner of the unit cell as their origin. The first, less-commonly seen system is that of Cartesian or orthogonal coordinates (X, Y, Z). These usually have the units of Angstroms and relate to the distance in each direction between the origin of the cell and the atom. These coordinates may be manipulated in the same fashion are used with two- or three-dimensional graphs. It is very simple, therefore, to calculate inter-atomic distances and angles given the Cartesian coordinates of the atoms. Unfortunately, the repeating nature of a crystal cannot be expressed easily using such coordinates. For example, consider a cubic cell of dimension 3.52 Å. Pretend that this cell contains an atom that has the coordinates (1.5, 2.1, 2.4). That is, the atom is 1.5 Å away from the origin in the x direction (which coincides with the a cell axis), 2.1 Å in the y (which coincides with the b cell axis) and 2.4 Å in the z (which coincides with the c cell axis). There will be an equivalent atom in the next unit cell along the x-direction, which will have the coordinates (1.5 + 3.52, 2.1, 2.4) or (5.02, 2.1, 2.4). This was a rather simple calculation, as the cell has very high symmetry and so the cell axes, a , b and c , coincide with the Cartesian axes, X, Y and Z. However, consider lower symmetry cells such as triclinic or monoclinic in which the cell axes are not mutually orthogonal. In such cases, expressing the repeating nature of the crystal is much more difficult to accomplish.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
how I can reaction of mercury?