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Applications of combustion analysis

Combustion, or burning as it is more commonly known, is simply the mixing and exothermic reaction of a fuel and an oxidizer. It has been used since prehistoric times in a variety of ways, such as a source of direct heat, as in furnaces, boilers, stoves, and metal forming, or in piston engines, gas turbines, jet engines, rocket engines, guns, and explosives. Automobile engines use internal combustion in order to convert chemical into mechanical energy. Combustion is currently utilized in the production of large quantities of H 2 . Coal or coke is combusted at 1000 °C in the presence of water in a two-step reaction. The first step shown in [link] involved the partial oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide. The second step, [link] , involves a mixture of produced carbon monoxide with water to produce hydrogen and is commonly known as the water gas shift reaction.

Although combustion provides a multitude of uses, it was not employed as a scientific analytical tool until the late 18th century.

History of combustion

In the 1780's, Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) was the first to analyze organic compounds with combustion using an extremely large and expensive apparatus ( [link] ) that required over 50 g of the organic sample and a team of operators.

French chemist and renowned "father of modern Chemistry" Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794).
Lavoisier's combustion apparatus. A. Lavoisier, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie , 1789, 2 , 493-501.

The method was simplified and optimized throughout the 19 th and 20 th centuries, first by Joseph Gay-Lussac ( [link] ), who began to use copper oxide in 1815, which is still used as the standard catalyst.

French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850).

William Prout ( [link] ) invented a new method of combustion analysis in 1827 by heating a mixture of the sample and CuO using a multiple-flame alcohol lamp ( [link] ) and measuring the change in gaseous volume.

English chemist, physician, and natural theologian William Prout (1785-1850).
Prout's combustion apparatus. W. Prout, Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond. , 1827, 117 , 355.

In 1831, Justus von Liebig ( [link] ) simplified the method of combustion analysis into a "combustion train" system ( [link] and [link] ) that linearly heated the sample using coal, absorbed water using calcium chloride, and absorbed carbon dioxide using potash (KOH). This new method only required 0.5 g of sample and a single operator, and Liebig moved the sample through the apparatus by sucking on an opening at the far right end of the apparatus.

German chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-1873).
Print of von Liebig's "combustion train" apparatus for determining carbon and hydrogen composition. J. Von Liebig, Annalen der Physik und Chemie , 1831,  21 .
Photo of von Liebig's "combustion train apparatus" for determining carbon and hydrogen composition. The Oesper Collections in the History of Chemistry, Apparatus Museum, University of Cincinnati, Case 10, Combustion Analysis. For a 360 o view of this apparatus, visit (External Link) .

Jean-Baptiste André Dumas ( [link] ) used a similar combustion train to Liebig. However, he added a U-shaped aspirator that prevented atmospheric moisture from entering the apparatus ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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