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Applications of combustion analysis

Combustion, or burning as it is more commonly known, is simply the mixing and exothermic reaction of a fuel and an oxidizer. It has been used since prehistoric times in a variety of ways, such as a source of direct heat, as in furnaces, boilers, stoves, and metal forming, or in piston engines, gas turbines, jet engines, rocket engines, guns, and explosives. Automobile engines use internal combustion in order to convert chemical into mechanical energy. Combustion is currently utilized in the production of large quantities of H 2 . Coal or coke is combusted at 1000 °C in the presence of water in a two-step reaction. The first step shown in [link] involved the partial oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide. The second step, [link] , involves a mixture of produced carbon monoxide with water to produce hydrogen and is commonly known as the water gas shift reaction.

Although combustion provides a multitude of uses, it was not employed as a scientific analytical tool until the late 18th century.

History of combustion

In the 1780's, Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) was the first to analyze organic compounds with combustion using an extremely large and expensive apparatus ( [link] ) that required over 50 g of the organic sample and a team of operators.

French chemist and renowned "father of modern Chemistry" Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794).
Lavoisier's combustion apparatus. A. Lavoisier, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie , 1789, 2 , 493-501.

The method was simplified and optimized throughout the 19 th and 20 th centuries, first by Joseph Gay-Lussac ( [link] ), who began to use copper oxide in 1815, which is still used as the standard catalyst.

French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850).

William Prout ( [link] ) invented a new method of combustion analysis in 1827 by heating a mixture of the sample and CuO using a multiple-flame alcohol lamp ( [link] ) and measuring the change in gaseous volume.

English chemist, physician, and natural theologian William Prout (1785-1850).
Prout's combustion apparatus. W. Prout, Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond. , 1827, 117 , 355.

In 1831, Justus von Liebig ( [link] ) simplified the method of combustion analysis into a "combustion train" system ( [link] and [link] ) that linearly heated the sample using coal, absorbed water using calcium chloride, and absorbed carbon dioxide using potash (KOH). This new method only required 0.5 g of sample and a single operator, and Liebig moved the sample through the apparatus by sucking on an opening at the far right end of the apparatus.

German chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-1873).
Print of von Liebig's "combustion train" apparatus for determining carbon and hydrogen composition. J. Von Liebig, Annalen der Physik und Chemie , 1831,  21 .
Photo of von Liebig's "combustion train apparatus" for determining carbon and hydrogen composition. The Oesper Collections in the History of Chemistry, Apparatus Museum, University of Cincinnati, Case 10, Combustion Analysis. For a 360 o view of this apparatus, visit (External Link) .

Jean-Baptiste André Dumas ( [link] ) used a similar combustion train to Liebig. However, he added a U-shaped aspirator that prevented atmospheric moisture from entering the apparatus ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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