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Complicated mixtures containing many components should be subject to an extraction process before they are separated via chromatography. An ideal extraction procedure should be fast, simple, and inexpensive. In addition, sample loss or decomposition should not be experienced at the end of the extraction. Following extraction, there should be a quantitative collection of each component. Ideally, the amount of unwanted materials coming from the extraction should be kept to a minimum and be easily disposable; the waste should not be harmful for environment. Unfortunately, traditional extraction methods often do not meet these requirements. In this regard, SFE has several advantages in comparison with traditional techniques.

The extraction speed is dependent on the viscosity and diffusivity of the mobile phase. With a low viscosity and high diffusivity, the component which is to be extracted can pass through the mobile phase easily. The higher diffusivity and lower viscosity of supercritical fluids, as compared to regular extraction liquids, help the components to be extracted faster than other techniques. Thus, an extraction process can take just 10-60 minutes with SFE, while it would take hours or even days with classical methods.

The dissolving efficiency of a supercritical fluid can be altered by temperature and pressure. In contrast, liquids are not affected by temperature and pressure changes as much. Therefore, SFE has the potential to be optimized to provide a better dissolving capacity.

In classical methods, heating is required to get rid of the extraction liquid. However, this step causes the temperature-sensitive materials to decompose. For SFE, when the critical pressure is removed, a supercritical fluid transforms to gas phase. Because supercritical fluid solvents are chemically inert, harmless and inexpensive; they can be released to atmosphere without leaving any waste. Through this, extracted components can be obtained much more easily and sample loss is minimized.

Instrumentation for sfe

The necessary apparatus for a SFE setup is simple. [link] depicts the basic elements of a SFE instrument, which is composed of a reservoir of supercritical fluid, a pressure tuning injection unit, two pumps (to take the components in the mobile phase in and to send them out of the extraction cell), and a collection chamber.

Scheme of an idealized supercritical fluid extraction instrument.

There are two principle modes to run the instrument:

  • Static extraction.
  • Dynamic extraction.

In dynamic extraction, the second pump sending the materials out to the collection chamber is always open during the extraction process. Thus, the mobile phase reaches the extraction cell and extracts components in order to take them out consistently.

In the static extraction experiment, there are two distinct steps in the process:

  1. The mobile phase fills the extraction cell and interacts with the sample.
  2. The second pump is opened and the extracted substances are taken out at once.

In order to choose the mobile phase for SFE, parameters taken into consideration include the polarity and solubility of the samples in the mobile phase. Carbon dioxide is the most common mobile phase for SFE. It has a capability to dissolve non-polar materials like alkanes. For semi-polar compounds (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, etc.) carbon dioxide can be used as a single component mobile phase. However, for compounds which have polar characteristic, supercritical carbon dioxide must be modified by addition of polar solvents like methanol (CH 3 OH). These extra solvents can be introduced into the system through a separate injection pump.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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