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Introduction

In the past few years, nanotechnology research has expanded out of the chemistry department and into the fields of medicine, energy, aerospace and even computing and information technology. With bulk materials, the surface area to volume is insignificant in relation to the number of atoms in the bulk, however when the particles are only 1 to 100 nm across, different properties begin to arise. For example, commercial grade zinc oxide has a surface area range of 2.5 to 12 m 2 /g while nanoparticle zinc oxide can have surface areas as high as 54 m 2 /g . The nanoparticles have superior UV blocking properties when compared to the bulk material, making them useful in applications such as sunscreen. Many useful properties of nanoparticles rise from their small size, making it very important to be able to determine their surface area.

Overview of bet theory

The BET theory was developed by Stephen Brunauer ( [link] ), Paul Emmett ( [link] ), and Edward Teller ( [link] ) in 1938. The first letter of each publisher’s surname was taken to name this theory. The BET theory was an extension of the Langmuir theory, developed by Irving Langmuir ( [link] ) in 1916.

Hungarian chemist Stephen Brunauer (1903-1986). Adapted from K. S. Sing, Langmuir, 1987, 3 , 2 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).
American chemical engineer Paul H. Emmett (1900 - 1985). Adapted from B.H. Davis, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90 , 4702 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).
Hungarian born theoretical physicist Edward Teller (1908 – 2003) shown in 1958 as the director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was known as "the father of the hydrogen bomb".
American chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir (1881 - 1957). Adapted from J. Chem. Educ. , 1933, 10 , 65 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).

The Langmuir theory relates the monolayer adsorption of gas molecules ( [link] ), also called adsorbates, onto a solid surface to the gas pressure of a medium above the solid surface at a fixed temperature to [link] , where θ is the fractional cover of the surface, P is the gas pressure and α is a constant.

Schematic of the adsorption of gas molecules onto the surface of a sample showing (a) the monolayer adsorption model assumed by the Langmuir theory and (b) s the multilayer adsorption model assumed by the BET theory.

The Langmuir theory is based on the following assumptions:

  • All surface sites have the same adsorption energy for the adsorbate, which is usually argon, krypton or nitrogen gas. The surface site is defined as the area on the sample where one molecule can adsorb onto.
  • Adsorption of the solvent at one site occurs independently of adsorption at neighboring sites.
  • Activity of adsorbate is directly proportional to its concentration.
  • Adsorbates form a monolayer.
  • Each active site can be occupied only by one particle.

The Langmuir theory has a few flaws that are addressed by the BET theory. The BET theory extends the Langmuir theory to multilayer adsorption ( [link] ) with three additional assumptions:

  • Gas molecules will physically adsorb on a solid in layers infinitely.
  • The different adsorption layers do not interact.
  • The theory can be applied to each layer.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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