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Introduction

In the past few years, nanotechnology research has expanded out of the chemistry department and into the fields of medicine, energy, aerospace and even computing and information technology. With bulk materials, the surface area to volume is insignificant in relation to the number of atoms in the bulk, however when the particles are only 1 to 100 nm across, different properties begin to arise. For example, commercial grade zinc oxide has a surface area range of 2.5 to 12 m 2 /g while nanoparticle zinc oxide can have surface areas as high as 54 m 2 /g . The nanoparticles have superior UV blocking properties when compared to the bulk material, making them useful in applications such as sunscreen. Many useful properties of nanoparticles rise from their small size, making it very important to be able to determine their surface area.

Overview of bet theory

The BET theory was developed by Stephen Brunauer ( [link] ), Paul Emmett ( [link] ), and Edward Teller ( [link] ) in 1938. The first letter of each publisher’s surname was taken to name this theory. The BET theory was an extension of the Langmuir theory, developed by Irving Langmuir ( [link] ) in 1916.

Hungarian chemist Stephen Brunauer (1903-1986). Adapted from K. S. Sing, Langmuir, 1987, 3 , 2 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).
American chemical engineer Paul H. Emmett (1900 - 1985). Adapted from B.H. Davis, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90 , 4702 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).
Hungarian born theoretical physicist Edward Teller (1908 – 2003) shown in 1958 as the director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was known as "the father of the hydrogen bomb".
American chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir (1881 - 1957). Adapted from J. Chem. Educ. , 1933, 10 , 65 (Copyright: American Chemical Society).

The Langmuir theory relates the monolayer adsorption of gas molecules ( [link] ), also called adsorbates, onto a solid surface to the gas pressure of a medium above the solid surface at a fixed temperature to [link] , where θ is the fractional cover of the surface, P is the gas pressure and α is a constant.

Schematic of the adsorption of gas molecules onto the surface of a sample showing (a) the monolayer adsorption model assumed by the Langmuir theory and (b) s the multilayer adsorption model assumed by the BET theory.

The Langmuir theory is based on the following assumptions:

  • All surface sites have the same adsorption energy for the adsorbate, which is usually argon, krypton or nitrogen gas. The surface site is defined as the area on the sample where one molecule can adsorb onto.
  • Adsorption of the solvent at one site occurs independently of adsorption at neighboring sites.
  • Activity of adsorbate is directly proportional to its concentration.
  • Adsorbates form a monolayer.
  • Each active site can be occupied only by one particle.

The Langmuir theory has a few flaws that are addressed by the BET theory. The BET theory extends the Langmuir theory to multilayer adsorption ( [link] ) with three additional assumptions:

  • Gas molecules will physically adsorb on a solid in layers infinitely.
  • The different adsorption layers do not interact.
  • The theory can be applied to each layer.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
how to find Rutherford scattering parameters angles
saksham Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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