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Introduction

Ion selective electrode (ISE) is an analytical technique used to determine the activity of ions in aqueous solution by measuring the electrical potential. ISE has many advantages compared to other techniques, including:

  1. It is relatively inexpensive and easy to operate.
  2. It has wide concentration measurement range.
  3. As it measure the activity, instead of concentration, it is particularly useful in biological/medical application.
  4. It is a real-time measurement, which means it can monitor the change of activity of ion with time.
  5. It can determine both positively and negatively charged ions.

Based on these advantages, ISE has wide variety of applications, which is reasonable considering the importance of measuring ion activity. For example, ISE finds its use in pollution monitoring in natural waters (CN - , F - , S - , Cl - , etc.), food processing (NO 3 - , NO 2 - in meat preservatives), Ca 2+ in dairy products, and K + in fruit juices, etc.

Measurement setup

Before focusing on how ISE works, it would be good to get an idea what ISE setup looks like and the component of the ISE instrument. [link] shows the basic components of ISE setup. It has an ion selective electrode, which allows measured ions to pass, but excludes the passage of the other ions. Within this ion selective electrode, there is an internal reference electrode ( [link] ), which is made of silver wire coated with solid silver chloride, embedded in concentrated potassium chloride solution (filling solution) saturated with silver chloride. This solution also contains the same ions as that to be measured. There is also a reference electrode similar to ion selective electrode, but there is no to-be-measured ion in the internal electrolyte and the selective membrane is replaced by porous frit, which allows the slow passage of the internal filling solution and forms the liquid junction with the external text solution. The ion selective electrode and reference electrode are connected by a milli-voltmeter. Measurment is accomplished simply by immersing the two electrodes in the same test solution.

Measurement setup of ISE.

Theory of how ise works

There are commonly more than one types of ions in solution. So how ISE manage to measure the concentration of certain ion in solution without being affected by other ions? This is done by applying a selective membrane at the ion selective electrode, which only allows the desired ion to go in and out. At equilibrium, there is potential difference existing between two sides of the membrane, and it is governed by the concentration of the tested solution described by Nernst equation EQ, where E is potential, E 0 is a constant characteristic of a particular ISE, R is the gas constant (8.314 J/K.mol), T is the temperature (in K), n is the charge of the ion and F is Faraday constant (96,500 coulombs/mol). To make it relevant, the measured potential difference is proportional to the logarithm of ion concentration. Thus, the relationship between potential difference and ion concentration can be determined by measuring the potential of two solutions of already-known ion concentration and a plot based on the measured potential and logarithm of the ion concentration. Based on this plot, the ion concentration of an unknown solution can be known by measuring the potential and corresponding it to the plot.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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