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ICP-AES is a spectral technique that is used to both determine the presence of metal analyte and the concentrations thereof. The ICP-AES method is introduced and a practical example is presented. This will help the reader to use this method for their own research work.

What is icp-aes?

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a spectral method used to determine very precisely the elemental composition of samples; it can also be used to quantify the elemental concentration with the sample. ICP-AES uses high-energy plasma from an inert gas like argon to burn analytes very rapidly. The color that is emitted from the analyte is indicative of the elements present, and the intensity of the spectral signal is indicative of the concentration of the elements that is present. A schematic view of a typical experimental set-up is shown in [link] .

Schematic representation of an ICP-AES set-up.

How does icp-aes work?

ICP-AES works by the emission of photons from analytes that are brought to an excited state by the use of high-energy plasma. The plasma source is induced when passing argon gas through an alternating electric field that is created by an inductively couple coil. When the analyte is excited the electrons try to dissipate the induced energy moving to a ground state of lower energy, in doing this they emit the excess energy in the form of light. The wavelength of light emitted depends on the energy gap between the excited energy level and the ground state. This is specific to the element based on the number of electrons the element has and electron orbital’s are filled. In this way the wavelength of light can be used to determine what elements are present by detection of the light at specific wavelengths.

As a simple example consider the situation when placing a piece of copper wire into the flame of a candle. The flame turns green due to the emission of excited electrons within the copper metal, as the electrons try to dissipate the energy incurred from the flame, they move to a more stable state emitting energy in the form of light. The energy gap between the excited state to the ground state (ΔE) dictates the color of the light or wavelength of the light, [link] , where h is Plank's constant (6.626×10 -34 m 2 kg/s), and ν is the frequency of the emitted light.

The wavelength of light is indicative of the element present. If another metal is placed in the flame such as iron a different color flame will be emitted because the electronic structure of iron is different from that of copper. This is a very simple analogy for what is happening in ICP-AES and how it is used to determine what elements are present. By detecting the wavelength of light that is emitted from the analyte one can deduce what elements are be present.

Naturally if there is a lot of the material present then there will be an accumulative effect making the intensity of the signal large. However, if there were very little materials present the signal would be low. By this rationale one can create a calibration curve from analyte solutions of known concentrations, whereby the intensity of the signal changes as a function of the concentration of the material that is present. When measuring the intensity from a sample of unknown concentration the intensity from this sample can be compared to that from the calibration curve, so this can be used to determine the concentration of the analytes within the sample.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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