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Create a p - n junction and observe the behavior of a simple circuit for forward and reverse bias voltages. Visit this site to learn more about semiconductor diodes.

Junction transistor

If diodes are one-way valves, transistors are one-way valves that can be carefully opened and closed to control current. A special kind of transistor is a junction transistor. A junction transistor    has three parts, including an n -type semiconductor, also called the emitter; a thin p -type semiconductor, which is the base; and another n -type semiconductor, called the collector ( [link] ). When a positive terminal is connected to the p -type layer (the base), a small current of electrons, called the base current     I B , flows to the terminal. This causes a large collector current     I c to flow through the collector. The base current can be adjusted to control the large collector current. The current gain is therefore

I c = β I B .
Three blocks in contact are shown. From left to right they are labeled: emitter, n-type, base, p-type and collector, n-type. A voltage source is connected across the collector and emitter, with the collector being positive. Another voltage source is connected across the emitter and base, with the base being positive. A thick arrow starts from the emitter, goes through the other two blocks, comes out of the collector and travels along the first voltage loop. The arrow is labeled large electron flow, collector current. A thinner arrow from the base travels into the second voltage loop. This is labeled small electron flow, base current.
A junction transistor has three parts: emitter, base, and collector. Voltage applied to the base acts as a valve to control electric current from the emitter to the collector.

A junction transistor can be used to amplify the voltage from a microphone to drive a loudspeaker. In this application, sound waves cause a diaphragm inside the microphone to move in and out rapidly ( [link] ). When the diaphragm is in the “in” position, a tiny positive voltage is applied to the base of the transistor. This opens the transistor “valve” and allows a large electrical current flow to the loudspeaker. When the diaphragm is in the “out” position, a tiny negative voltage is applied to the base of the transistor, which shuts off the transistor valve so that no current flows to the loudspeaker. This shuts the transistor “valve” off so no current flows to the loudspeaker. In this way, current to the speaker is controlled by the sound waves, and the sound is amplified. Any electric device that amplifies a signal is called an amplifier    .

Figure a shows three blocks in contact. From left to right they are labeled: emitter, n-type, base, p-type and collector, n-type. A loudspeaker is connected across the collector and emitter. A microphone is connected across the emitter and base. It is labeled diaphragm moves out. The voltage across the microphone is labeled base voltage. It is negative at the base. The figure is labeled little or no electron flow. Figure b shows a similar arrangement to figure a. A thick arrow starts from the emitter, goes through the other two blocks, comes out of the collector and travels along the loudspeaker loop. The arrow is labeled large electron flow, collector current. A thinner arrow from the base travels into the microphone loop. This is labeled small electron flow, base current. The polarity of the base voltage across the microphone is opposite from that in figure a. The microphone is labeled diaphragm moves in. The loudspeaker is shown to give out sound waves.
An audio amplifier based on a junction transistor. Voltage applied to the base by a microphone acts as a valve to control a larger electric current that passes through a loudspeaker.

In modern electronic devices, digital signals are used with diodes and transistors to perform tasks such as data manipulation. Electric circuits carry two types of electrical signals: analog and digital ( [link] ). An analog signal varies continuously, whereas a digital signal switches between two fixed voltage values, such as plus 1 volt and zero volts. In digital circuits like those found in computers, a transistor behaves like an on-off switch. The transistor is either on, meaning the valve is completely open, or it is off, meaning the valve is completely closed. Integrated circuits contain vast collections of transistors on a single piece of silicon. They are designed to handle digital signals that represent ones and zeroes, which is also known as binary code. The invention of the ic helped to launch the modern computer revolution.

Two graphs of V versus t are shown. The first, labeled analog signal has an irregular sinusoidal wave. The second, labeled digital signal has a square wave.
Real-world data are often analog, meaning data can vary continuously. Intensity values of sound or visual images are usually analog. These data are converted into digital signals for electronic processing in recording devices or computers. The digital signal is generated from the analog signal by requiring certain voltage cut-off value.

Summary

  • A diode is produced by an n-p junction. A diode allows current to move in just one direction. In forward biased configuration of a diode, the current increases exponentially with the voltage.
  • A transistor is produced by an n-p-n junction. A transistor is an electric valve that controls the current in a circuit.
  • A transistor is a critical component in audio amplifiers, computers, and many other devices.

Conceptual questions

When p - and n -type materials are joined, why is a uniform electric field generated near the junction?

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When p - and n -type materials are joined, why does the depletion layer not grow indefinitely?

The electric field produced by the uncovered ions reduces further diffusion. In equilibrium, the diffusion and drift currents cancel so the net current is zero. Therefore, the resistance of the depletion region is large.

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How do you know if a diode is in the forward biased configuration?

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Why does the reverse bias configuration lead to a very small current?

The positive terminal is applied to the n -side, which uncovers more ions near the junction (widens the depletion layer), increases the junction voltage difference, and therefore reduces the diffusion of holes across the junction.

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What happens in the extreme case that where the n - and p -type materials are heavily doped?

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Explain how an audio amplifier works, using the transistor concept.

Sound moves a diaphragm in and out, which varies the input or base current of the transistor circuit. The transistor amplifies this signal ( p-n-p semiconductor). The output or collector current drives a speaker.

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Problems

Show that for V less than zero, I net I 0 .

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A p-n diode has a reverse saturation current 1.44 × 10 −8 A . It is forward biased so that it has a current of 6.78 × 10 −1 A moving through it. What bias voltage is being applied if the temperature is 300 K?

V b = 0.458 V

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The collector current of a transistor is 3.4 A for a base current of 4.2 mA. What is the current gain?

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Applying the positive end of a battery to the p -side and the negative end to the n -side of a p-n junction, the measured current is 8.76 × 10 −1 A . Reversing this polarity give a reverse saturation current of 4.41 × 10 −8 A . What is the temperature if the bias voltage is 1.2 V?

T = 829 K

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The base current of a transistor is 4.4 A, and its current gain 1126. What is the collector current?

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Questions & Answers

A round diaphragm S with diameter of d = 0.05 is used as light source in Michelson interferometer shown on the picture. The diaphragm is illuminated by parallel beam of monochromatic light with wavelength of λ = 0.6 μm. The distances are A B = 30, A C = 10 . The interference picture is in the form of concentric circles and is observed on the screen placed in the focal plane of the lens. Estimate the number of interference rings m observed near the main diffractive maximum.
Jyoti Reply
A Pb wire wound in a tight solenoid of diameter of 4.0 mm is cooled to a temperature of 5.0 K. The wire is connected in series with a 50-Ωresistor and a variable source of emf. As the emf is increased, what value does it have when the superconductivity of the wire is destroyed?
Rupal Reply
how does colour appear in thin films
Nwjwr Reply
in the wave equation y=Asin(kx-wt+¢) what does k and w stand for.
Kimani Reply
derivation of lateral shieft
James Reply
hi
Imran
total binding energy of ionic crystal at equilibrium is
All Reply
How does, ray of light coming form focus, behaves in concave mirror after refraction?
Bishesh Reply
Refraction does not occur in concave mirror. If refraction occurs then I don't know about this.
Sushant
What is motion
Izevbogie Reply
Anything which changes itself with respect to time or surrounding
Sushant
good
Chemist
and what's time? is time everywhere same
Chemist
No
Sushant
how can u say that
Chemist
do u know about black hole
Chemist
Not so more
Sushant
Radioactive substance
DHEERAJ
These substance create harmful radiation like alpha particle radiation, beta particle radiation, gamma particle radiation
Sushant
But ask anything changes itself with respect to time or surrounding A Not any harmful radiation
DHEERAJ
explain cavendish experiment to determine the value of gravitational concept.
Celine Reply
 Cavendish Experiment to Measure Gravitational Constant. ... This experiment used a torsion balance device to attract lead balls together, measuring the torque on a wire and equating it to the gravitational force between the balls. Then by a complex derivation, the value of G was determined.
Triio
For the question about the scuba instructor's head above the pool, how did you arrive at this answer? What is the process?
Evan Reply
as a free falling object increases speed what is happening to the acceleration
Success Reply
of course g is constant
Alwielland
acceleration also inc
Usman
which paper will be subjective and which one objective
jay
normal distributiin of errors report
Dennis
normal distribution of errors
Dennis
acceleration also increases
Jay
there are two correct answers depending on whether air resistance is considered. none of those answers have acceleration increasing.
Michael
Acceleration is the change in velocity over time, hence it's the derivative of the velocity with respect to time. So this case would depend on the velocity. More specifically the change in velocity in the system.
Big
photo electrons doesn't emmit when electrons are free to move on surface of metal why?
Rafi Reply
What would be the minimum work function of a metal have to be for visible light(400-700)nm to ejected photoelectrons?
Mohammed Reply
give any fix value to wave length
Rafi
40 cm into change mm
Arhaan Reply
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. that cap(^) I have used above is to the power.
Prema
i.e. 10to the power -2 in the first line and 10 to the power -3 in the the second line.
Prema
there is mistake in my first msg correction is 40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. sorry for the mistake friends.
Prema
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm.
Prema
this msg is out of mistake. sorry friends​.
Prema
what is physics?
sisay Reply
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12067/1.4
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