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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the physical meaning of the position-momentum uncertainty relation
  • Explain the origins of the uncertainty principle in quantum theory
  • Describe the physical meaning of the energy-time uncertainty relation

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle    is a key principle in quantum mechanics. Very roughly, it states that if we know everything about where a particle is located (the uncertainty of position is small), we know nothing about its momentum (the uncertainty of momentum is large), and vice versa. Versions of the uncertainty principle also exist for other quantities as well, such as energy and time. We discuss the momentum-position and energy-time uncertainty principles separately.

Momentum and position

To illustrate the momentum-position uncertainty principle, consider a free particle that moves along the x -direction. The particle moves with a constant velocity u and momentum p = m u . According to de Broglie’s relations, p = k and E = ω . As discussed in the previous section, the wave function for this particle is given by

ψ k ( x , t ) = A [ cos ( ω t k x ) i sin ( ω t k x ) ] = A e i ( ω t k x ) = A e i ω t e i k x

and the probability density | ψ k ( x , t ) | 2 = A 2 is uniform and independent of time. The particle is equally likely to be found anywhere along the x -axis but has definite values of wavelength and wave number, and therefore momentum. The uncertainty of position is infinite (we are completely uncertain about position) and the uncertainty of the momentum is zero (we are completely certain about momentum). This account of a free particle is consistent with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Similar statements can be made of localized particles. In quantum theory, a localized particle is modeled by a linear superposition of free-particle (or plane-wave) states called a wave packet    . An example of a wave packet is shown in [link] . A wave packet contains many wavelengths and therefore by de Broglie’s relations many momenta—possible in quantum mechanics! This particle also has many values of position, although the particle is confined mostly to the interval Δ x . The particle can be better localized ( Δ x can be decreased) if more plane-wave states of different wavelengths or momenta are added together in the right way ( Δ p is increased). According to Heisenberg, these uncertainties obey the following relation.

The heisenberg uncertainty principle

The product of the uncertainty in position of a particle and the uncertainty in its momentum can never be less than one-half of the reduced Planck constant:

Δ x Δ p / 2 .

This relation expresses Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. It places limits on what we can know about a particle from simultaneous measurements of position and momentum. If Δ x is large, Δ p is small, and vice versa. [link] can be derived in a more advanced course in modern physics. Reflecting on this relation in his work The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory , Heisenberg wrote “Any use of the words ‘position’ and ‘velocity’ with accuracy exceeding that given by [the relation] is just as meaningless as the use of words whose sense is not defined.”

Questions & Answers

how does colour appear in thin films
Nwjwr Reply
in the wave equation y=Asin(kx-wt+¢) what does k and w stand for.
Kimani Reply
derivation of lateral shieft
James Reply
how are you?
I'm fine
total binding energy of ionic crystal at equilibrium is
All Reply
How does, ray of light coming form focus, behaves in concave mirror after refraction?
Bishesh Reply
Refraction does not occur in concave mirror. If refraction occurs then I don't know about this.
What is motion
Izevbogie Reply
Anything which changes itself with respect to time or surrounding
and what's time? is time everywhere same
how can u say that
do u know about black hole
Not so more
Radioactive substance
These substance create harmful radiation like alpha particle radiation, beta particle radiation, gamma particle radiation
But ask anything changes itself with respect to time or surrounding A Not any harmful radiation
explain cavendish experiment to determine the value of gravitational concept.
Celine Reply
 Cavendish Experiment to Measure Gravitational Constant. ... This experiment used a torsion balance device to attract lead balls together, measuring the torque on a wire and equating it to the gravitational force between the balls. Then by a complex derivation, the value of G was determined.
For the question about the scuba instructor's head above the pool, how did you arrive at this answer? What is the process?
Evan Reply
as a free falling object increases speed what is happening to the acceleration
Success Reply
of course g is constant
acceleration also inc
which paper will be subjective and which one objective
normal distributiin of errors report
normal distribution of errors
acceleration also increases
there are two correct answers depending on whether air resistance is considered. none of those answers have acceleration increasing.
Acceleration is the change in velocity over time, hence it's the derivative of the velocity with respect to time. So this case would depend on the velocity. More specifically the change in velocity in the system.
photo electrons doesn't emmit when electrons are free to move on surface of metal why?
Rafi Reply
What would be the minimum work function of a metal have to be for visible light(400-700)nm to ejected photoelectrons?
Mohammed Reply
give any fix value to wave length
40 cm into change mm
Arhaan Reply
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. that cap(^) I have used above is to the power.
i.e. 10to the power -2 in the first line and 10 to the power -3 in the the second line.
there is mistake in my first msg correction is 40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. sorry for the mistake friends.
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm.
this msg is out of mistake. sorry friends​.
what is physics?
sisay Reply
why we have physics
Anil Reply
because is the study of mater and natural world
because physics is nature. it explains the laws of nature. some laws already discovered. some laws yet to be discovered.
physics is the study of non living things if we added it with biology it becomes biophysics and bio is the study of living things tell me please what is this?
physics is the study of matter,energy and their interactions
all living things are matter
why rolling friction is less than sliding friction
thanks buvanas
is this a physics forum
Physics Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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