# 5.1 Invariance of physical laws  (Page 3/10)

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In addition, there was a contradiction between the principles of electromagnetism and the assumption made in Newton’s laws about relative velocity. Classically, the velocity of an object in one frame of reference and the velocity of that object in a second frame of reference relative to the first should combine like simple vectors to give the velocity seen in the second frame. If that were correct, then two observers moving at different speeds would see light traveling at different speeds. Imagine what a light wave would look like to a person traveling along with it (in vacuum) at a speed c . If such a motion were possible, then the wave would be stationary relative to the observer. It would have electric and magnetic fields whose strengths varied with position but were constant in time. This is not allowed by Maxwell’s equations. So either Maxwell’s equations are different in different inertial frames, or an object with mass cannot travel at speed c . Einstein concluded that the latter is true: An object with mass cannot travel at speed c . Maxwell’s equations are correct, but Newton’s addition of velocities is not correct for light.

Not until 1905, when Einstein published his first paper on special relativity, was the currently accepted conclusion reached. Based mostly on his analysis that the laws of electricity and magnetism would not allow another speed for light, and only slightly aware of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein detailed his second postulate of special relativity    .

## Second postulate of special relativity

Light travels in a vacuum with the same speed c in any direction in all inertial frames.

In other words, the speed of light has the same definite speed for any observer, regardless of the relative motion of the source. This deceptively simple and counterintuitive postulate, along with the first postulate, leave all else open for change. Among the changes are the loss of agreement on the time between events, the variation of distance with speed, and the realization that matter and energy can be converted into one another. We describe these concepts in the following sections.

Check Your Understanding Explain how special relativity differs from general relativity.

Special relativity applies only to objects moving at constant velocity, whereas general relativity applies to objects that undergo acceleration.

## Summary

• Relativity is the study of how observers in different reference frames measure the same event.
• Modern relativity is divided into two parts. Special relativity deals with observers in uniform (unaccelerated) motion, whereas general relativity includes accelerated relative motion and gravity. Modern relativity is consistent with all empirical evidence thus far and, in the limit of low velocity and weak gravitation, gives close agreement with the predictions of classical (Galilean) relativity.
• An inertial frame of reference is a reference frame in which a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion moves at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force.
• Modern relativity is based on Einstein’s two postulates. The first postulate of special relativity is that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. The second postulate of special relativity is that the speed of light c is the same in all inertial frames of reference, independent of the relative motion of the observer and the light source.
• The Michelson-Morley experiment demonstrated that the speed of light in a vacuum is independent of the motion of Earth about the sun.

## Conceptual questions

Which of Einstein’s postulates of special relativity includes a concept that does not fit with the ideas of classical physics? Explain.

the second postulate, involving the speed of light; classical physics already included the idea that the laws of mechanics, at least, were the same in all inertial frames, but the velocity of a light pulse was different in different frames moving with respect to each other

Is Earth an inertial frame of reference? Is the sun? Justify your response.

When you are flying in a commercial jet, it may appear to you that the airplane is stationary and Earth is moving beneath you. Is this point of view valid? Discuss briefly.

yes, provided the plane is flying at constant velocity relative to the Earth; in that case, an object with no force acting on it within the plane has no change in velocity relative to the plane and no change in velocity relative to the Earth; both the plane and the ground are inertial frames for describing the motion of the object

#### Questions & Answers

what is light
What is photoelectric
light energy (photons) through semiconduction of N-P junction into electrical via excitation of silicon purified and cristalized into wafers with partially contaminated silicon to allow this N-P function to operate.
Michael
i.e. Solar pannel.
Michael
If you lie on a beach looking at the water with your head tipped slightly sideways, your polarized sunglasses do not work very well.Why not?
it has everything to do with the angle the UV sunlight strikes your sunglasses.
Jallal
this is known as optical physics. it describes how visible light, ultraviolet light and infrared light interact when they come into contact with physical matter. usually the photons or light upon interaction result in either reflection refraction diffraction or interference of the light.
Jallal
I hope I'm clear if I'm not please tell me to clarify further or rephrase
Jallal
what is bohrs model for hydrogen atom
hi
Tr
Hello
Youte
Hi
Nwangwu-ike
hi
Siddiquee
hi
Omar
helo
Mcjoi
what is the value of speed of light
1.79×10_¹⁹ km per hour
Swagatika
what r dwarf planet
what is energy
কাজের একক কী
Jasim
কাজের একক কী
Jasim
friction ka direction Kaise pata karte hai
friction is always in the opposite of the direction of moving object
Punia
A twin paradox in the special theory of relativity arises due to.....? a) asymmetric of time only b) symmetric of time only c) only time
b) symmetric of time only
Swagatika
fundamental note of a vibrating string
every matter made up of particles and particles are also subdivided which are themselves subdivided and so on ,and the basic and smallest smallest smallest division is energy which vibrates to become particles and thats why particles have wave nature
Alvin
what are matter waves? Give some examples
according to de Broglie any matter particles by attaining the higher velocity as compared to light'ill show the wave nature and equation of wave will applicable on it but in practical life people see it is impossible however it is practicaly true and possible while looking at the earth matter at far
Manikant
a centeral part of theory of quantum mechanics example:just like a beam of light or a water wave
Swagatika
Mathematical expression of principle of relativity
given that the velocity v of wave depends on the tension f in the spring, it's length 'I' and it's mass 'm'. derive using dimension the equation of the wave
What is the importance of de-broglie's wavelength?
he related wave to matter
Zahid
at subatomic level wave and matter are associated. this refering to mass energy equivalence
Zahid
it is key of quantum
Manikant
how those weight effect a stable motion at equilibrium