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Summary

  • When the mirror in one arm of the interferometer moves a distance of λ / 2 each fringe in the interference pattern moves to the position previously occupied by the adjacent fringe.

Key equations

Constructive interference Δ l = m λ , for m = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3…
Destructive interference Δ l = ( m + 1 2 ) λ , for m = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3…
Path length difference for waves from two slits to a common point on a screen Δ l = d sin θ
Constructive interference d sin θ = m λ , for m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ± 3 ,…
Destructive interference d sin θ = ( m + 1 2 ) λ , for m = 0, ± 1 , ± 2 , ± 3 ,
Distance from central maximum to the m th bright fringe y m = m λ D d
Displacement measured by a Michelson interferometer Δ d = m λ 0 2

Conceptual questions

Describe how a Michelson interferometer can be used to measure the index of refraction of a gas (including air).

In one arm, place a transparent chamber to be filled with the gas. See [link] .

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Problems

A Michelson interferometer has two equal arms. A mercury light of wavelength 546 nm is used for the interferometer and stable fringes are found. One of the arms is moved by 1.5 μ m . How many fringes will cross the observing field?

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What is the distance moved by the traveling mirror of a Michelson interferometer that corresponds to 1500 fringes passing by a point of the observation screen? Assume that the interferometer is illuminated with a 606 nm spectral line of krypton-86.

4.55 × 10 −4 m

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When the traveling mirror of a Michelson interferometer is moved 2.40 × 10 −5 m , 90 fringes pass by a point on the observation screen. What is the wavelength of the light used?

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In a Michelson interferometer, light of wavelength 632.8 nm from a He-Ne laser is used. When one of the mirrors is moved by a distance D , 8 fringes move past the field of view. What is the value of the distance D ?

D = 2.53 × 10 −6 m

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A chamber 5.0 cm long with flat, parallel windows at the ends is placed in one arm of a Michelson interferometer (see below). The light used has a wavelength of 500 nm in a vacuum. While all the air is being pumped out of the chamber, 29 fringes pass by a point on the observation screen. What is the refractive index of the air?

Picture shows a schematics of a set-up utilized to measure the refractive index of a gas. The glass chamber with a gas is placed in the Michelson interferometer between the half-silvered mirror M and mirror M1. The space inside the container is 5 cm wide.
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Additional problems

For 600-nm wavelength light and a slit separation of 0.12 mm, what are the angular positions of the first and third maxima in the double slit interference pattern?

0.29 ° and 0.86 °

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If the light source in the preceding problem is changed, the angular position of the third maximum is found to be 0.57 ° . What is the wavelength of light being used now?

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Red light ( λ = 710. nm ) illuminates double slits separated by a distance d = 0.150 mm . The screen and the slits are 3.00 m apart. (a) Find the distance on the screen between the central maximum and the third maximum. (b) What is the distance between the second and the fourth maxima?

a. 4.26 cm; b. 2.84 cm

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Two sources as in phase and emit waves with λ = 0.42 m . Determine whether constructive or destructive interference occurs at points whose distances from the two sources are (a) 0.84 and 0.42 m, (b) 0.21 and 0.42 m, (c) 1.26 and 0.42 m, (d) 1.87 and 1.45 m, (e) 0.63 and 0.84 m and (f) 1.47 and 1.26 m.

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Two slits 4.0 × 10 −6 m apart are illuminated by light of wavelength 600 nm. What is the highest order fringe in the interference pattern?

6

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Questions & Answers

A round diaphragm S with diameter of d = 0.05 is used as light source in Michelson interferometer shown on the picture. The diaphragm is illuminated by parallel beam of monochromatic light with wavelength of λ = 0.6 μm. The distances are A B = 30, A C = 10 . The interference picture is in the form of concentric circles and is observed on the screen placed in the focal plane of the lens. Estimate the number of interference rings m observed near the main diffractive maximum.
Jyoti Reply
A Pb wire wound in a tight solenoid of diameter of 4.0 mm is cooled to a temperature of 5.0 K. The wire is connected in series with a 50-Ωresistor and a variable source of emf. As the emf is increased, what value does it have when the superconductivity of the wire is destroyed?
Rupal Reply
how does colour appear in thin films
Nwjwr Reply
in the wave equation y=Asin(kx-wt+¢) what does k and w stand for.
Kimani Reply
derivation of lateral shieft
James Reply
hi
Imran
total binding energy of ionic crystal at equilibrium is
All Reply
How does, ray of light coming form focus, behaves in concave mirror after refraction?
Bishesh Reply
Refraction does not occur in concave mirror. If refraction occurs then I don't know about this.
Sushant
What is motion
Izevbogie Reply
Anything which changes itself with respect to time or surrounding
Sushant
good
Chemist
and what's time? is time everywhere same
Chemist
No
Sushant
how can u say that
Chemist
do u know about black hole
Chemist
Not so more
Sushant
Radioactive substance
DHEERAJ
These substance create harmful radiation like alpha particle radiation, beta particle radiation, gamma particle radiation
Sushant
But ask anything changes itself with respect to time or surrounding A Not any harmful radiation
DHEERAJ
explain cavendish experiment to determine the value of gravitational concept.
Celine Reply
 Cavendish Experiment to Measure Gravitational Constant. ... This experiment used a torsion balance device to attract lead balls together, measuring the torque on a wire and equating it to the gravitational force between the balls. Then by a complex derivation, the value of G was determined.
Triio
For the question about the scuba instructor's head above the pool, how did you arrive at this answer? What is the process?
Evan Reply
as a free falling object increases speed what is happening to the acceleration
Success Reply
of course g is constant
Alwielland
acceleration also inc
Usman
which paper will be subjective and which one objective
jay
normal distributiin of errors report
Dennis
normal distribution of errors
Dennis
acceleration also increases
Jay
there are two correct answers depending on whether air resistance is considered. none of those answers have acceleration increasing.
Michael
Acceleration is the change in velocity over time, hence it's the derivative of the velocity with respect to time. So this case would depend on the velocity. More specifically the change in velocity in the system.
Big
photo electrons doesn't emmit when electrons are free to move on surface of metal why?
Rafi Reply
What would be the minimum work function of a metal have to be for visible light(400-700)nm to ejected photoelectrons?
Mohammed Reply
give any fix value to wave length
Rafi
40 cm into change mm
Arhaan Reply
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. that cap(^) I have used above is to the power.
Prema
i.e. 10to the power -2 in the first line and 10 to the power -3 in the the second line.
Prema
there is mistake in my first msg correction is 40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm. sorry for the mistake friends.
Prema
40cm=40.0×10^-2m =400.0×10^-3m =400mm.
Prema
this msg is out of mistake. sorry friends​.
Prema
what is physics?
sisay Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12067/1.4
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