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Despite the observed dominance of matter over antimatter in the universe, the Standard Model of particle interactions and experimental measurement suggests only small differences in the ways that matter and antimatter interact. For example, neutral kaon decays produce only slightly more matter than antimatter. Yet, if through such decay, slightly more matter than antimatter was produced in the early universe, the rest could annihilate pair by pair, leaving mostly ordinary matter to form the stars and galaxies. In this way, the vast number of stars we observe may be only a tiny remnant of the original matter created in the Big Bang.

Dark matter and dark energy

In the last two decades, new and more powerful techniques have revealed that the universe is filled with dark matter    . This type of matter is interesting and important because, currently, scientists do not know what it is! However, we can infer its existence by the deflection of distant starlight. For example, if light from a distant galaxy is bent by the gravitational field of a clump of dark matter between us and the galaxy, it is possible that two images of the same galaxy can be produced ( [link] ). The bending of light by the gravitational field of matter is called gravitational lensing. In some cases, the starlight travels to an observer by multiple paths around the galaxy, producing a ring ( [link] ).

Based on current research, scientist know only that dark matter is cold, slow moving, and interacts weakly with ordinary matter. Dark matter candidates include neutralinos (partners of Z bosons, photons, and Higgs bosons in “supersymmetry theory”) and particles that circulate in tiny rings set up by extra spatial dimensions.

Figure shows a star on the left and earth on the right. There is a galaxy in the center. Two rays originate from the star and bend around the galaxy to reach the earth. The back extensions of the bent rays connect to two objects, both labeled star image, one at the top and the other at the bottom of the star.
Light from a distant star is bent around a galaxy. Under the right conditions, two duplicate images of the same star can be seen.
Photograph of a black sky. A yellow light is seen at the center. A circle of white light surrounds it.
Light from a distant star is bent around a galaxy. Under the right conditions, we can see a ring of light instead of a single star. (credit: ESA/Hubble&NASA)

Increasingly precise astronomical measurements of the expanding universe also reveal the presence of a new form of energy called dark energy    . This energy is thought to explain larger-than-expected values for the observed galactic redshifts for distant galaxies. These redshifts suggest that the universe is not only expanding, but expanding at an increasing rate. Virtually nothing is known about the nature and properties of dark energy. Together, dark energy and dark matter represent two of the most interesting and unsolved puzzles of modern physics. Scientists attribute 68.3 % of the energy of the universe to dark energy, 26.8 % to dark matter, and just 4.9 % to the mass-energy of ordinary particles ( [link] ). Given the current great mystery over the nature of dark matter and dark energy, Isaac Newton’s humble words are as true now as they were centuries ago:

“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.”

Questions & Answers

what is electro statics
fitsum Reply
when you consider systems consisting of fixed charges
Diagram of the derive rotational analog equation of v= u+at
Nnamnso Reply
what is carat
Arnulfo Reply
what is chemistry
Mrs Reply
what chemistry ?
where are the mcq
Fred Reply
acids and bases
How does unpolarized light have electric vector randomly oriented in all directions.
Tanishq Reply
unpolarized light refers to a wave collection which has an equal distribution of electric field orientations for all directions
In a grating, the angle of diffraction for second order maximum is 30°.When light of wavelength 5*10^-10cm is used. Calculate the number of lines per cm of the grating.
Micheal Reply
state the law of gravity 6
cletus Reply
what is cathodic protection
Ebe Reply
its just a technique used for the protection of a metal from corrosion by making it cathode of an electrochemical cell.
what is interferometer
Sonu Reply
what is interferometer
Show that n1Sino1=n2Sino2
javan Reply
what's propagation
Vikas Reply
is it in context of waves?
It is the manner of motion of the energy whether mechanical(requiring elastic medium)or electromagnetic(non interference with medium)
determine displacement cat any time t for a body of mass 2kg under a time varrying force ft=bt³+csinkt
Felix Reply
A round diaphragm S with diameter of d = 0.05 is used as light source in Michelson interferometer shown on the picture. The diaphragm is illuminated by parallel beam of monochromatic light with wavelength of λ = 0.6 μm. The distances are A B = 30, A C = 10 . The interference picture is in the form of concentric circles and is observed on the screen placed in the focal plane of the lens. Estimate the number of interference rings m observed near the main diffractive maximum.
Jyoti Reply
A Pb wire wound in a tight solenoid of diameter of 4.0 mm is cooled to a temperature of 5.0 K. The wire is connected in series with a 50-Ωresistor and a variable source of emf. As the emf is increased, what value does it have when the superconductivity of the wire is destroyed?
Rupal Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

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