11.7 Evolution of the early universe  (Page 2/10)

 Page 2 / 10

To describe the conditions of the early universe quantitatively, recall the relationship between the average thermal energy of particle ( E ) in a system of interacting particles and equilibrium temperature ( T ) of that system:

$E={k}_{B}T,$

where ${k}_{\text{B}}$ is Boltzmann’s constant. In the hot conditions of the early universe, particle energies were unimaginably large.

Strategy

The average thermal energy of a particle in a system of interacting particles depends on the equilibrium temperature of that system [link] . We are given this approximate temperature in the above timeline.

Solution

Cosmologists think the temperature of the universe just after the Big Bang was approximately $T=1{0}^{32}\text{K}.$ Therefore, the average thermal energy of a particle would have been

Significance

This energy is many orders of magnitude larger than particle energies produced by human-made particle accelerators. Currently, these accelerators operate at energies less than $1{0}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{GeV}.$

Check Your Understanding Compare the abundance of helium by mass 10,000 years after the Big Bang and now.

Nucleons form at energies approximately equal to the rest mass of a proton, or 1000 MeV. The temperature corresponding to this energy is therefore

$T=\frac{1000\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{MeV}}{8.62\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{11}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{MeV}·{\text{K}}^{-1}}=1.2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{13}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{K}\text{.}$

Temperatures of this value or higher existed within the first second of the early universe. A similar analysis can be done for atoms. Atoms form at an energy equal to the ionization energy of ground-state hydrogen (13 eV). The effective temperature for atom formation is therefore

$T=\frac{13\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{eV}}{8.62\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{eV}·{\text{K}}^{-1}}=1.6\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{K}\text{.}$

This occurs well after the four fundamental forces have separated, including forces necessary to bind the protons and neutrons in the nucleus (strong nuclear force), and bind electrons to the nucleus (electromagnetic force).

Nucleosynthesis of light elements

The relative abundances of the light elements hydrogen, helium, lithium, and beryllium in the universe provide key evidence for the Big Bang. The data suggest that much of the helium in the universe is primordial. For instance, it turns out that that 25% of the matter in the universe is helium, which is too high an abundance and cannot be explained based on the production of helium in stars.

How much of the elements in the universe were created in the Big Bang? If you run the clock backward, the universe becomes more and more compressed, and hotter and hotter. Eventually, temperatures are reached that permit nucleosynthesis    , the period of formation of nuclei, similar to what occurs at the core of the Sun. Big Bang nucleosynthesis is believed to have occurred within a few hundred seconds of the Big Bang.

How did Big Bang nucleosynthesis occur? At first, protons and neutrons combined to form deuterons, ${}^{2}\text{H}$ . The deuteron captured a neutron to form triton, ${}^{3}\text{H}$ —the nucleus of the radioactive hydrogen called tritium. Deuterons also captured protons to make helium ${}^{3}\text{He}$ . When ${}^{3}\text{H}$ captures a proton or ${}^{3}\text{He}$ captures a neutron, helium ${}^{4}\text{He}$ results. At this stage in the Big Bang, the ratio of protons to neutrons was about 7:1. Thus, the process of conversion to ${}^{4}\text{He}$ used up almost all neutrons. The process lasted about 3 minutes and almost $25\text{%}$ of all the matter turned into ${}^{4}\text{He}$ , along with small percentages of ${}^{2}\text{H}$ , ${}^{3}\text{H}$ , and ${}^{3}\text{He}$ . Tiny amounts of ${}^{7}\text{Li}$ and ${}^{7}\text{Be}$ were also formed. The expansion during this time cooled the universe enough that the nuclear reactions stopped. The abundances of the light nuclei ${}^{2}\text{H}$ , ${}^{4}\text{He}$ , and ${}^{7}\text{Li}$ created after the Big Bang are very dependent on the matter density.

what is the difference between a molecule and atom
Atoms are single neutral particles. Molecules are neutral particles made of two or more atoms bonded together.
Manfred
what I'd dynamic propulsion
A body quadruples its momentum when its speed doubles.What was the initial speed in units of c.i.e..what was u/c ?
what is enthalpy?
a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat content of a system
RAMLA
proparty of tharmo dainamic
bloch
What is the meaning of Nuclear Fission?
what do you mean by dynamics single particles
عند قذف جسم إلى أعلى بسرعة إبتدائية فإنه سيصل إلى ارتفاع معين (أقصى ارتفاع) ثم يعود هابطاً نحو سطح الأرض .   إذا قُذِفَ جسم إلى أعلى ووجد أن سرعته 18 م / ث عندما قطع 1/4 المسافة التي تمثل أقصى ارتفاع سيصله فالمطلوب إيجاد السرعة التي قُذِف بها بالمتر / ث . إن هذه السرعة هي واحدة من الإجابات التالية
what is light
light is a kind of radiation That stimulates sight brightness a source of illumination.
kenneth
Electromagnet radiation creates space 7th, 8th, and 9th dimensions at the rate of c.
John
That is the reason that the speed of light is constant.
John
This creation of new space is "Dark Energy".
John
The first two sets of three dimensions, 1 through 6, are "Dark Matter".
John
As matter decays into luminous matter, a proton, a neutron, and an electron creat deuterium.
John
There are three sets of three protons, 9.
John
There are three sets of three neutrons, 9.
John
A free neutron decays into a proton, an electron, and a neutrino.
John
There are three sets of five neutrinoes, 15.
John
Neutrinoes are two dimensional.
John
A positron is composed of the first three dimensions.
John
An electron is composed of the second three dimensions.
John
What is photoelectric
light energy (photons) through semiconduction of N-P junction into electrical via excitation of silicon purified and cristalized into wafers with partially contaminated silicon to allow this N-P function to operate.
Michael
i.e. Solar pannel.
Michael
Photoelectric emission is the emission of electrons on a metal surface due to incident rays reflected on it
Benita
If you lie on a beach looking at the water with your head tipped slightly sideways, your polarized sunglasses do not work very well.Why not?
it has everything to do with the angle the UV sunlight strikes your sunglasses.
Jallal
this is known as optical physics. it describes how visible light, ultraviolet light and infrared light interact when they come into contact with physical matter. usually the photons or light upon interaction result in either reflection refraction diffraction or interference of the light.
Jallal
I hope I'm clear if I'm not please tell me to clarify further or rephrase
Jallal
what is bohrs model for hydrogen atom
hi
Tr
Hello
Youte
Hi
Nwangwu-ike
hi
Siddiquee
hi
Omar
helo
Mcjoi
what is the value of speed of light
1.79×10_¹⁹ km per hour
Swagatika
3×10^8
Benita
what r dwarf planet
what is energy
কাজের একক কী
Jasim
কাজের একক কী
Jasim
Energy is ability so capacity to do work.
kenneth
friction ka direction Kaise pata karte hai
friction is always in the opposite of the direction of moving object
Punia