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Biological effects of different levels of nuclear radiation on the human body are given in [link] . The first clue that a person has been exposed to radiation is a change in blood count, which is not surprising since blood cells are the most rapidly reproducing cells in the body. At higher doses, nausea and hair loss are observed, which may be due to interference with cell reproduction. Cells in the lining of the digestive system also rapidly reproduce, and their destruction causes nausea. When the growth of hair cells slows, the hair follicles become thin and break off. High doses cause significant cell death in all systems, but the lowest doses that cause fatalities do so by weakening the immune system through the loss of white blood cells.

[1] Multiply by 100 to obtain dose in rem.
Immediate effects of radiation (adults, whole-body, single exposure)
Dose in Sv [1] Effect
0–0.10 No observable effect.
0.1–1 Slight to moderate decrease in white blood cell counts.
0.5 Temporary sterility; 0.35 for women, 0.50 for men.
1–2 Significant reduction in blood cell counts, brief nausea and vomiting. Rarely fatal.
2–5 Nausea, vomiting, hair loss, severe blood damage, hemorrhage, fatalities.
4.5 Lethal to 50 % of the population within 32 days after exposure if not treated.
5–20 Worst effects due to malfunction of small intestine and blood systems. Limited survival.
>20 Fatal within hours due to collapse of central nervous system.

Sources of radiation

Human are also exposed to many sources of nuclear radiation. A summary of average radiation doses for different sources by country is given in [link] . Earth emits radiation due to the isotopes of uranium, thorium, and potassium. Radiation levels from these sources depend on location and can vary by a factor of 10. Fertilizers contain isotopes of potassium and uranium, which we digest in the food we eat. Fertilizers have more than 3000 Bq/kg radioactivity, compared to just 66 Bq/kg for Carbon-14.

[1] Multiply by 100 to obtain does in mrem/y.
Background radiation sources and average doses
Source Dose (mSv/y) [1]
Australia Germany US World
Natural radiation – external
Cosmic rays 0.30 0.28 0.30 0.39
Soil, building materials 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.48
Radon gas 0.90 1.1 2.0 1.2
Natural radiation – internal
40 K , 14 C , 226 Ra 0.24 0.28 0.40 0.29
Artificial radiation
Medical and dental 0.80 0.90 0.53 0.40
TOTAL 2.6 3.0 3.5 2.8

Medical visits are also a source of nuclear radiation. A sample of common nuclear radiation doses is given in [link] . These doses are generally low and can be lowered further with improved techniques and more sensitive detectors. With the possible exception of routine dental X-rays, medical use of nuclear radiation is used only when the risk-benefit is favorable. Chest X-rays give the lowest doses—about 0.1 mSv to the tissue affected, with less than 5 % scattering into tissues that are not directly imaged. Other X-ray procedures range upward to about 10 mSv in a CT scan, and about 5 mSv (0.5 rem) per dental X-ray, again both only affecting the tissue imaged. Medical images with radiopharmaceuticals give doses ranging from 1 to 5 mSv, usually localized.

Questions & Answers

mcq creativity involves
Sanjika Reply
send me the answers
mCQ creativity involves
ology means a study of
SharaAmor Reply
is a greek word means soul
a branch of knowledge
psych means soul and ology means to study.
Can someone help me with tha latent functions of different social institutions
***interestinglydifferenttopics.blogspot.com/2020/10/reflexes-psychological-debate.html Do check this out and please correct me if I'm wrong anywhere in this
Interestingly Reply
Factors that affect learning?
Ofentse Reply
I am struggling with survivors guilt and complicated grief after traumatic death of spouse. how to cope.
Rowdy Reply
Try to talk with someone you trust and join people who makes you feel worthy. try to help someone. Helping someone makes you feel better
I think you must seek professional help.
I am extremely sorry for your loss...I know that the pain of your loss is overwhelming and that you are experiencing all kinds of difficult and unexpected emotions. please don't get me wrong but the best way to cope is to move on..i know its hard..but that's the only way..(continued.)
stop burdening yourself with thoughts that say you could have done something..you couldn't..your just a human being and you cant always be a superman who saves the day..please dont feel guilty when you have no reason to..(cont.)
learn to love yourself again..learn to live ..for yourself,for the people who love you and need you in their lives.live for people who you once loved...Think about how you can make your life meaningful once again.It might seem impossible but trust me its necessary ..
Let your feelings of pain out ..you dont have to suffer ..talk to people whom you trust and love. take care and have a beautiful life ahead.
First and foremost -- Wow Rowdy! You have been through a highly difficult situation in your life, hands down. As a wife, I simply cannot phathom nor imagine slightly the feelings and thoughts you bare and I'm sure as these words do not help and hit rewind; my heart and prayers are going out to you-
today. I will say as well, everything you are feeling and going through, please know that these feelings and thoughts are all allowed, it is okay for you to find yourself feeling or thinking things that you would never find yourself wanting especially given the situation. I'm sure you question --
yourself, which in turn could make you question who you are right now and what this means for you as a person now and in the future. This is all okay, but there will have to be an understanding as to how to grow from these feelings and thoughts in a more humane manner l as these feelings and ---
thoughts could take a turn for a much more negative outcome as you find yourself trapped in a darkness that, if strong enough, trials and tribulations take years of complex development and experience, less strong minded individuals sometimes either never find the light, or end up being stuck in ----
a subconscious netherworld as they are consumed given the manipulation that was not understood to overcome. It results in losing all sense of heart, faith, soul and intelligence so that you don't grow, which in your case, growth is crucial. This is what your spouse will do their best in trying -----
to guide you through; keep an your senses wide open so that you can learn when she is trying to communicate.
What is meant by politics of intelligence? Please guide about this article.
Ali Reply
Thanks angela
Can u please explain it to me in your words?
Information about child psychology
Mohammed Reply
what is this
any theory recommendations about socialization?
help me please:<
actually I don't know
I badly need some for my research :<
But I need that😥
***courses.lumenlearning.com /boundless-sociology/chapter/theories-of-socialization/
branches of psychology
QSN Reply
Legal psychology
Developmental psychology, Sports psychology , Clinical psychology , Marketing psychology , counseling psychology , Biological psychology, Educational psychology , Positive psychology etc.
social, occupational psychology
what does it mean when the temporal lobe is anterior to occipital lobe
John Reply
the cortex refers to what part of the brain
the cortex refers to what part of the brain
cerebral cortex
in what time of situation is training most useful?
marjelee Reply
during bad experience
i think its not about suitation, its about the thing tatz need training.
training is possibly warranted for all situations.
I would think that training should be an ungoing thing. That's before, during and after. just in case there's a reoccurrence
any time
what is Karma
ana Reply
I think the summation of good and bad deeds you do in your life. Accidentally or otherwise.
Yes. I totally agree.
And if it is bad then the root must have been too.
Yes , In Hinduism we also believe that our parent's Karma also applies to us ! Don't know about that , but it kept people in check .
Adding to Swarada point. karma can be good or bad. both will have consequences. karma is biasedness you have shown in your life. like a king could not have two rules for normal man and his son, that comes under karma.
Oh perfectly said!
Ok. It is also said that when one does something... bad or good..it will come back to you 10 folds of the same.
yea that too ! I remember my mother always said if u stole someone's 10 rupees ur 100 will be stolen ( excuse my English ! I'm a non - English speaking person)
karma is nothing but what one usually mean when they say- what you sow, so shall you reap.
more important.. this concept was told by lord Krishna as part of spirituality, to focus on your good deed ,the purpose you are born for and your responsibilities. Not for hoping that bad will happen with people who made you feel bad. just giving example ;)
karma is the boomerang of your actions. what u put out in the universe u get back
Who is the founder of psychology
Daryl Reply
Wilhelm wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
William wundth
Wilhelm Wundt
and William James
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt is the founder of structuralism
Yes and also the "Father of Psychology" I think the correct word is Father not Founder.
oh ok. noted
i believe it goes beyond him I believe it is Ancient but un formalized
I like your answer Swarada
Oh thanks! But u summarised it well!
what is up my fellow psych peeps!!
what are some academic research on developmental psychology
Sawrada Founder of Psychology is W.Wundt but Father of Psychology is Sigmund Freud...
what are some good schools to study psychology?
Enjoy Reply
George Mason, Penn State, UVA, university of Michigan
Hi I'm currently doing my experimental psychology research can you suggest a topic or research topic for my research thank you and please see 😊
Jerico Reply
Hello Jerico. I could help you out with some ideas if you're interested!
can u give me some ideas too?
For sure. It depends if you're trying to do an experiment (using statistics probably) or a case study what are you aiming for?
Hello Jerico. Try to opt for something simple and easy to do. I wouls say perhaps study the effects of color on concentration? You could get a group of people and have them take a memory test (you can find some online) in a white room for example. Then have them take another memory test
similar to the first one but in a different room and then you check the responses if the performance is better
but you have to know that a lot of factors will interfere in the performance such as mental state etc so make sure to choose a certain specific population. that's very important
you could be a bit more specific about it , to isolate the variables that can mess it up like age, sex, etc... you gotta take that into account
so that the results get somewhat accurate
that is very detailed information I really like it thank you very much 😊 your so very kind
You're very welcome
what are your interests in general?
Althogh I'm persuing botany and engineering.... but I also want to study human behaviour and psychology.... I would like if anyone can share their knowledge with me !!!!
I'm interested on effect of electroconvulsive therapy on people having a depression
What is Electroconvulsive therapy?
Astral Projection
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment that is most commonly used in patients with severe major depression.
What are the expected dutties functions and responsibilities of a head of an agency based on the principles, Practice of industrial psychology?
Paul Reply
what are the psychological characteristics expected from an employee wether regular or occupying a position?
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

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