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The ideal gas law is closely related to energy: The units on both sides of the equation are joules. The right-hand side of the ideal gas law equation is N k B T . This term is roughly the total translational kinetic energy (which, when discussing gases, refers to the energy of translation of a molecule, not that of vibration of its atoms or rotation) of N molecules at an absolute temperature T , as we will see formally in the next section. The left-hand side of the ideal gas law equation is pV . As mentioned in the example on the number of molecules in an ideal gas, pressure multiplied by volume has units of energy. The energy of a gas can be changed when the gas does work as it increases in volume, something we explored in the preceding chapter, and the amount of work is related to the pressure. This is the process that occurs in gasoline or steam engines and turbines, as we’ll see in the next chapter.

Problem-solving strategy: the ideal gas law

Step 1. Examine the situation to determine that an ideal gas is involved. Most gases are nearly ideal unless they are close to the boiling point or at pressures far above atmospheric pressure.

Step 2. Make a list of what quantities are given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the known quantities).

Step 3. Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknown quantities). A written list is useful.

Step 4. Determine whether the number of molecules or the number of moles is known or asked for to decide whether to use the ideal gas law as p V = N k B T , where N is the number of molecules, or p V = n R T , where n is the number of moles.

Step 5. Convert known values into proper SI units (K for temperature, Pa for pressure, m 3 for volume, molecules for N , and moles for n ). If the units of the knowns are consistent with one of the non-SI values of R , you can leave them in those units. Be sure to use absolute temperature and absolute pressure.

Step 6. Solve the ideal gas law for the quantity to be determined (the unknown quantity). You may need to take a ratio of final states to initial states to eliminate the unknown quantities that are kept fixed.

Step 7. Substitute the known quantities, along with their units, into the appropriate equation and obtain numerical solutions complete with units.

Step 8. Check the answer to see if it is reasonable: Does it make sense?

The van der waals equation of state

We have repeatedly noted that the ideal gas law is an approximation. How can it be improved upon? The van der Waals equation of state    (named after the Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals , 1837−1923) improves it by taking into account two factors. First, the attractive forces between molecules, which are stronger at higher density and reduce the pressure, are taken into account by adding to the pressure a term equal to the square of the molar density multiplied by a positive coefficient a . Second, the volume of the molecules is represented by a positive constant b , which can be thought of as the volume of a mole of molecules. This is subtracted from the total volume to give the remaining volume that the molecules can move in. The constants a and b are determined experimentally for each gas. The resulting equation is

Questions & Answers

Maxwell's stress tensor is
Ami Reply
if 6.0×10^13 electrons are placed on a metal sphere of charge 9.0micro Coulombs, what is the net charge on the sphere
Rita Reply
18.51micro Coulombs
Is it possible to find the magnetic field of a circular loop at the centre by using ampere's law?
Rb Reply
Is it possible to find the magnetic field of a circular loop at it's centre?
Rb Reply
The density of a gas of relative molecular mass 28 at a certain temperature is 0.90 K kgmcube.The root mean square speed of the gas molecules at that temperature is 602ms.Assuming that the rate of diffusion of a gas in inversely proportional to the square root of its density,calculate the density of
Gifty Reply
A hot liquid at 80degree Celsius is added to 600g of the same liquid originally at 10 degree Celsius. when the mixture reaches 30 degree Celsius, what will be the total mass of the liquid?
what is electrostatics
Yakub Reply
Study of charges which are at rest
Explain Kinematics
Glory Reply
Two equal positive charges are repelling each other. The force on the charge on the left is 3.0 Newtons. Using your notes on Coulomb's law, and the forces acting on each of the charges, what is the force on the charge on the right?
Nya Reply
Using the same two positive charges, the left positive charge is increased so that its charge is 4 times LARGER than the charge on the right. Using your notes on Coulomb's law and changes to the charge, once the charge is increased, what is the new force of repulsion between the two positive charges?
A mass 'm' is attached to a spring oscillates every 5 second. If the mass is increased by a 5 kg, the period increases by 3 second. Find its initial mass 'm'
Md Reply
a hot water tank containing 50,000g of water is heated by an electric immersion heater rated at 3kilowatt,240volt, calculate the current
Samuel Reply
what is charge
Aamir Reply
product of current and time
Why always amber gain electrons and fur loose electrons? Why the opposite doesn't happen?
Mohammed Reply
A closely wound search coil has an area of 4cm^2,1000 turns and a resistance of 40ohm. It is connected to a ballistic galvanometer whose resistance is 24 ohm. When coil is rotated from a position parallel to uniform magnetic field to one perpendicular to field,the galvanometer indicates a charge
Palak Reply
Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
Michael Reply
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Bysteria Reply

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