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Conceptual questions

Discuss how potential difference and electric field strength are related. Give an example.

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What is the strength of the electric field in a region where the electric potential is constant?

The electric field strength is zero because electric potential differences are directly related to the field strength. If the potential difference is zero, then the field strength must also be zero.

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If a proton is released from rest in an electric field, will it move in the direction of increasing or decreasing potential? Also answer this question for an electron and a neutron. Explain why.

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Voltage is the common word for potential difference. Which term is more descriptive, voltage or potential difference?

Potential difference is more descriptive because it indicates that it is the difference between the electric potential of two points.

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If the voltage between two points is zero, can a test charge be moved between them with zero net work being done? Can this necessarily be done without exerting a force? Explain.

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What is the relationship between voltage and energy? More precisely, what is the relationship between potential difference and electric potential energy?

They are very similar, but potential difference is a feature of the system; when a charge is introduced to the system, it will have a potential energy which may be calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the charge by the potential difference.

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Voltages are always measured between two points. Why?

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How are units of volts and electron-volts related? How do they differ?

An electron-volt is a volt multiplied by the charge of an electron. Volts measure potential difference, electron-volts are a unit of energy.

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Can a particle move in a direction of increasing electric potential, yet have its electric potential energy decrease? Explain

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Problems

Find the ratio of speeds of an electron and a negative hydrogen ion (one having an extra electron) accelerated through the same voltage, assuming non-relativistic final speeds. Take the mass of the hydrogen ion to be 1.67 × 10 −27 kg .

1 2 m e v e 2 = q V , 1 2 m H v H 2 = q V , so that m e v e 2 m H v H 2 = 1 or v e v H = 42.8

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An evacuated tube uses an accelerating voltage of 40 kV to accelerate electrons to hit a copper plate and produce X-rays. Non-relativistically, what would be the maximum speed of these electrons?

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Show that units of V/m and N/C for electric field strength are indeed equivalent.

1 V = 1 J/C; 1 J = 1 N · m 1 V/m = 1 N/C

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What is the strength of the electric field between two parallel conducting plates separated by 1.00 cm and having a potential difference (voltage) between them of 1.50 × 10 4 V ?

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The electric field strength between two parallel conducting plates separated by 4.00 cm is 7.50 × 10 4 V . (a) What is the potential difference between the plates? (b) The plate with the lowest potential is taken to be zero volts. What is the potential 1.00 cm from that plate and 3.00 cm from the other?

a. V A B = 3.00 kV ; b. V A B = 7.50 kV

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The voltage across a membrane forming a cell wall is 80.0 mV and the membrane is 9.00 nm thick. What is the electric field strength? (The value is surprisingly large, but correct.) You may assume a uniform electric field.

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Two parallel conducting plates are separated by 10.0 cm, and one of them is taken to be at zero volts. (a) What is the electric field strength between them, if the potential 8.00 cm from the zero volt plate (and 2.00 cm from the other) is 450 V? (b) What is the voltage between the plates?

a. V A B = E d E = 5.63 kV/m ;
b. V A B = 563 V

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Find the maximum potential difference between two parallel conducting plates separated by 0.500 cm of air, given the maximum sustainable electric field strength in air to be 3.0 × 10 6 V/m .

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An electron is to be accelerated in a uniform electric field having a strength of 2.00 × 10 6 V/m . (a) What energy in keV is given to the electron if it is accelerated through 0.400 m? (b) Over what distance would it have to be accelerated to increase its energy by 50.0 GeV?

a. Δ K = q Δ V and V A B = E d , so that Δ K = 800 keV;
b. d = 25.0 km

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Use the definition of potential difference in terms of electric field to deduce the formula for potential difference between r = r a and r = r b for a point charge located at the origin. Here r is the spherical radial coordinate.

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The electric field in a region is pointed away from the z-axis and the magnitude depends upon the distance s from the axis. The magnitude of the electric field is given as E = α s where α is a constant. Find the potential difference between points P 1 and P 2 , explicitly stating the path over which you conduct the integration for the line integral.

The figure shows two points P subscript 1 and P subscript 2 at distances a and b from the origin and having an angle phi between them.

One possibility is to stay at constant radius and go along the arc from P 1 to P 2 , which will have zero potential due to the path being perpendicular to the electric field. Then integrate from a to b : V a b = α ln ( b a )

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Singly charged gas ions are accelerated from rest through a voltage of 13.0 V. At what temperature will the average kinetic energy of gas molecules be the same as that given these ions?

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Questions & Answers

What is differential form of Gauss's law?
Rohit Reply
help me out on this question the permittivity of diamond is 1.46*10^-10.( a)what is the dielectric of diamond (b) what its susceptibility
OLUWA Reply
a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
Abu Reply
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
Jeff
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
Lord Reply
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
MPL Reply
what is charge quantization
Mayowa Reply
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e ) q = ne n : no of electrons or protons e : basic unit charge 1e = 1.602×10^-19
Riya
is the time quantized ? how ?
Mehmet
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Mayowa
Can you give an explanation.
Mayowa
there are some comment on the time -quantized..
Mehmet
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
Mehmet
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
Mehmet
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
Tamoghna
it is just like bohr's theory. Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
Aditya
determine absolute zero
OFERE Reply
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
Opeyemi Reply
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Abhishek
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Abhishek
Change in internal energy through q=Q-w
Abhishek
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
Gwam Reply
what is copper loss
timileyin Reply
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
Ashok Reply
what is the weight of the earth in space
peterpaul Reply
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
Ifeoma Reply
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
Mehmet
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
Mayowa
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
Mehmet
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
Mateshwar Reply
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe Reply
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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