<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Graphs of pressure versus volume at six different temperatures, T one through T five and T critical. T one is the lowest temperature and T five is the highest. T critical is in the middle. Graphs show that pressure per unit volume is greater for greater temperatures. Pressure decreases with increasing volume for all temperatures, except at low temperatures when pressure is constant with increasing volume during a phase change.
PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagrams. (a) Each curve (isotherm) represents the relationship between P size 12{P} {} and V size 12{V} {} at a fixed temperature; the upper curves are at higher temperatures. The lower curves are not hyperbolas, because the gas is no longer an ideal gas. (b) An expanded portion of the PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram for low temperatures, where the phase can change from a gas to a liquid. The term “vapor” refers to the gas phase when it exists at a temperature below the boiling temperature.
Critical temperatures and pressures
Substance Critical temperature Critical pressure
K size 12{K} {} º C size 12{°C} {} Pa size 12{"Pa"} {} atm size 12{"atm"} {}
Water 647.4 374.3 22 . 12 × 10 6 size 12{"22" "." "12"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 219.0
Sulfur dioxide 430.7 157.6 7 . 88 × 10 6 size 12{7 "." "88" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 78.0
Ammonia 405.5 132.4 11 . 28 × 10 6 size 12{"11" "." "28"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 111.7
Carbon dioxide 304.2 31.1 7 . 39 × 10 6 size 12{7 "." "39"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 73.2
Oxygen 154.8 −118.4 5 . 08 × 10 6 size 12{5 "." "08"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 50.3
Nitrogen 126.2 −146.9 3 . 39 × 10 6 size 12{3 "." "39"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 33.6
Hydrogen 33.3 −239.9 1 . 30 × 10 6 size 12{1 "." "30"×"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 12.9
Helium 5.3 −267.9 0 . 229 × 10 6 size 12{0 "." "229" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} 2.27

Phase diagrams

The plots of pressure versus temperatures provide considerable insight into thermal properties of substances. There are well-defined regions on these graphs that correspond to various phases of matter, so PT size 12{ ital "PT"} {} graphs are called phase diagrams . [link] shows the phase diagram for water. Using the graph, if you know the pressure and temperature you can determine the phase of water. The solid lines—boundaries between phases—indicate temperatures and pressures at which the phases coexist (that is, they exist together in ratios, depending on pressure and temperature). For example, the boiling point of water is 100 º C size 12{"100"°C} {} at 1.00 atm. As the pressure increases, the boiling temperature rises steadily to 374 º C size 12{"374"°C} {} at a pressure of 218 atm. A pressure cooker (or even a covered pot) will cook food faster because the water can exist as a liquid at temperatures greater than 100 º C size 12{"100"°C} {} without all boiling away. The curve ends at a point called the critical point , because at higher temperatures the liquid phase does not exist at any pressure. The critical point occurs at the critical temperature, as you can see for water from [link] . The critical temperature for oxygen is 118 º C size 12{ +- "118"°C} {} , so oxygen cannot be liquefied above this temperature.

Graph of pressure versus temperature showing the boundaries of the three phases of water, along with the triple point and critical point. The triple point, where all three phases exist, is at 0 point 006 atmospheres and 0 point 01 degrees C. The critical point is at two hundred eighteen atmospheres and three hundred seventy four degrees C. Solid water is in the P T region generally to the left (lower temperature, lower or higher pressure, from the triple point). Liquid water is generally above and to the right of the triple point (higher pressure, higher temperature). The region of water vapor is to the lower right of the triple point (lower pressure and temperature to higher temperature and pressure).
The phase diagram ( PT size 12{ ital "PT"} {} graph) for water. Note that the axes are nonlinear and the graph is not to scale. This graph is simplified—there are several other exotic phases of ice at higher pressures.

Similarly, the curve between the solid and liquid regions in [link] gives the melting temperature at various pressures. For example, the melting point is 0 º C size 12{0°C} {} at 1.00 atm, as expected. Note that, at a fixed temperature, you can change the phase from solid (ice) to liquid (water) by increasing the pressure. Ice melts from pressure in the hands of a snowball maker. From the phase diagram, we can also say that the melting temperature of ice rises with increased pressure. When a car is driven over snow, the increased pressure from the tires melts the snowflakes; afterwards the water refreezes and forms an ice layer.

At sufficiently low pressures there is no liquid phase, but the substance can exist as either gas or solid. For water, there is no liquid phase at pressures below 0.00600 atm. The phase change from solid to gas is called sublimation    . It accounts for large losses of snow pack that never make it into a river, the routine automatic defrosting of a freezer, and the freeze-drying process applied to many foods. Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, sublimates at standard atmospheric pressure of 1 atm. (The solid form of CO 2 size 12{"CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is known as dry ice because it does not melt. Instead, it moves directly from the solid to the gas state.)

Questions & Answers

the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Bethel Reply
what is Linear motion
Hamza Reply
straight line motion is called linear motion
then what
linear motion is a motion in a line, be it in a straight line or in a non straight line. It is the rate of change of distance.
your are wrong Saeedul
Linear motion is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension
what is the formula to calculate wavelength of the incident light
David Reply
if a spring is is stiffness of 950nm-1 what work will be done in extending the spring by 60mmp
Hassan Reply
State the forms of energy
Samzy Reply
Word : Mechanical wave Definition : The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, e.g., Sound waves. \n\nOther Definition: The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, are called mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are also called elastic waves. Sound waves, water waves are examples of mechanical waves.t Definition: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.h
Clement Reply
what is mechanical wave
Akinpelu Reply
a wave which require material medium for its propagation
The S.I unit for power is what?
Samuel Reply
Am I correct
it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
OK that's right
SI.unit of power is.watt=j/c.but kw.and Mw are bigger.umots
What is physics
aish Reply
study of matter and its nature
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
why in circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction
Syafiqah Reply
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
What is a wave
Mutuma Reply
Tramsmission of energy through a media
is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
mistakes thanks
find the triple product of (A*B).C given that A =i + 4j, B=2i - 3j and C = i + k
Favour Reply
Difference between north seeking pole and south seeking pole
Stanley Reply
if the earth Suddenly contract s then
Swami Reply
please formula for density is what
what is motion
Nelson Reply
In physics, motion is the change in position of an object with respect to its surroundings in a given interval of time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time, and speed. ... Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring the motion of

Get the best College physics course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?