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A photograph of the surface of planet Venus is shown. The lava flows on Venus are shown as orange red color of the surface.
An image of Sif Mons with lava flows on Venus, based on Magellan synthetic aperture radar data combined with radar altimetry to produce a three-dimensional map of the surface. The Venusian atmosphere is opaque to visible light, but not to the microwaves that were used to create this image. (credit: NSSDC, NASA/JPL)

Heating with microwaves

How does the ubiquitous microwave oven produce microwaves electronically, and why does food absorb them preferentially? Microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz are produced by accelerating electrons. The microwaves are then used to induce an alternating electric field in the oven.

Water and some other constituents of food have a slightly negative charge at one end and a slightly positive charge at one end (called polar molecules). The range of microwave frequencies is specially selected so that the polar molecules, in trying to keep orienting themselves with the electric field, absorb these energies and increase their temperatures—called dielectric heating.

The energy thereby absorbed results in thermal agitation heating food and not the plate, which does not contain water. Hot spots in the food are related to constructive and destructive interference patterns. Rotating antennas and food turntables help spread out the hot spots.

Another use of microwaves for heating is within the human body. Microwaves will penetrate more than shorter wavelengths into tissue and so can accomplish “deep heating” (called microwave diathermy). This is used for treating muscular pains, spasms, tendonitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Making connections: take-home experiment—microwave ovens

  1. Look at the door of a microwave oven. Describe the structure of the door. Why is there a metal grid on the door? How does the size of the holes in the grid compare with the wavelengths of microwaves used in microwave ovens? What is this wavelength?
  2. Place a glass of water (about 250 ml) in the microwave and heat it for 30 seconds. Measure the temperature gain (the Δ T size 12{DT} {} ). Assuming that the power output of the oven is 1000 W, calculate the efficiency of the heat-transfer process.
  3. Remove the rotating turntable or moving plate and place a cup of water in several places along a line parallel with the opening. Heat for 30 seconds and measure the Δ T size 12{DT} {} for each position. Do you see cases of destructive interference?

Microwaves generated by atoms and molecules far away in time and space can be received and detected by electronic circuits. Deep space acts like a blackbody with a 2.7 K temperature, radiating most of its energy in the microwave frequency range. In 1964, Penzias and Wilson detected this radiation and eventually recognized that it was the radiation of the Big Bang’s cooled remnants.

Infrared radiation

The microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum overlap (see [link] ). Infrared radiation is generally produced by thermal motion and the vibration and rotation of atoms and molecules. Electronic transitions in atoms and molecules can also produce infrared radiation.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of physics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11738/1.5
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