




Many other processes also occur that do not fit into any of these four categories.
Summary
 The thermal behavior of a system is described in terms of thermodynamic variables. For an ideal gas, these variables are pressure, volume, temperature, and number of molecules or moles of the gas.
 For systems in thermodynamic equilibrium, the thermodynamic variables are related by an equation of state.
 A heat reservoir is so large that when it exchanges heat with other systems, its temperature does not change.
 A quasistatic process takes place so slowly that the system involved is always in thermodynamic equilibrium.
 A reversible process is one that can be made to retrace its path and both the temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
 There are several types of thermodynamic processes, including (a) isothermal, where the system’s temperature is constant; (b) adiabatic, where no heat is exchanged by the system; (c) isobaric, where the system’s pressure is constant; and (d) isochoric, where the system’s volume is constant.
 As a consequence of the first law of thermodymanics, here is a summary of the thermodymaic processes: (a) isothermal:
$\text{\Delta}{E}_{\text{int}}=0,Q=W;$ (b) adiabatic:
$Q=0,\text{\Delta}{E}_{\text{int}}=\text{\u2212}W;$ (c) isobaric:
$\text{\Delta}{E}_{\text{int}}=QW;$ and (d) isochoric:
$W=0,\text{\Delta}{E}_{\text{int}}=Q.$
Conceptual questions
When a gas expands isothermally, it does work. What is the source of energy needed to do this work?
The system must be in contact with a heat source that allows heat to flow into the system.
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It is unlikely that a process can be isothermal unless it is a very slow process. Explain why. Is the same true for isobaric and isochoric processes? Explain your answer.
Isothermal processes must be slow to make sure that as heat is transferred, the temperature does not change. Even for isobaric and isochoric processes, the system must be in thermal equilibrium with slow changes of thermodynamic variables.
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Problems
Two moles of a monatomic ideal gas at (5 MPa, 5 L) is expanded isothermally until the volume is doubled (step 1). Then it is cooled isochorically until the pressure is 1 MPa (step 2). The temperature drops in this process. The gas is now compressed isothermally until its volume is back to 5 L, but its pressure is now 2 MPa (step 3). Finally, the gas is heated isochorically to return to the initial state (step 4). (a) Draw the four processes in the pV plane. (b) Find the total work done by the gas.
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Consider a transformation from point
A to
B in a twostep process. First, the pressure is lowered from 3 MPa at point
A to a pressure of 1 MPa, while keeping the volume at 2 L by cooling the system. The state reached is labeled
C . Then the system is heated at a constant pressure to reach a volume of 6 L in the state
B . (a) Find the amount of work done on the
ACB path. (b) Find the amount of heat exchanged by the system when it goes from
A to
B on the
ACB path. (c) Compare the change in the internal energy when the
AB process occurs adiabatically with the
AB change through the twostep process on the
ACB path.
a. 1660 J; b. −2730 J; c. It does not depend on the process.
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Consider a cylinder with a movable piston containing n moles of an ideal gas. The entire apparatus is immersed in a constant temperature bath of temperature T kelvin. The piston is then pushed slowly so that the pressure of the gas changes quasistatically from
${p}_{1}$ to
${p}_{2}$ at constant temperature T. Find the work done by the gas in terms of n, R, T,
${p}_{1},$ and
${p}_{2}.$
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An ideal gas expands isothermally along AB and does 700 J of work (see below). (a) How much heat does the gas exchange along AB? (b) The gas then expands adiabatically along BC and does 400 J of work. When the gas returns to A along CA, it exhausts 100 J of heat to its surroundings. How much work is done on the gas along this path?
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Consider the processes shown below. In the processes AB and BC, 3600 J and 2400 J of heat are added to the system, respectively. (a) Find the work done in each of the processes AB, BC, AD, and DC. (b) Find the internal energy change in processes AB and BC. (c) Find the internal energy difference between states C and A. (d) Find the total heat added in the ADC process. (e) From the information give, can you find the heat added in process AD? Why or why not?
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Two moles of helium gas are placed in a cylindrical container with a piston. The gas is at room temperature
$25\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{\xb0}\text{C}$ and under a pressure of
$3.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pa}\text{.}$ When the pressure from the outside is decreased while keeping the temperature the same as the room temperature, the volume of the gas doubles. (a) Find the work the external agent does on the gas in the process. (b) Find the heat exchanged by the gas and indicate whether the gas takes in or gives up heat. Assume ideal gas behavior.
a. −3 400 J; b. 3400 J enters the gas
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An amount of n moles of a monatomic ideal gas in a conducting container with a movable piston is placed in a large thermal heat bath at temperature
${T}_{1}$ and the gas is allowed to come to equilibrium. After the equilibrium is reached, the pressure on the piston is lowered so that the gas expands at constant temperature. The process is continued quasistatically until the final pressure is 4/3 of the initial pressure
${p}_{1}.$ (a) Find the change in the internal energy of the gas. (b) Find the work done by the gas. (c) Find the heat exchanged by the gas, and indicate, whether the gas takes in or gives up heat.
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Questions & Answers
What is differential form of Gauss's law?
help me out on this question
the permittivity of diamond is 1.46*10^10.( a)what is the dielectric of diamond (b) what its susceptibility
a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
Jeff
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
what is charge quantization
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e )
q = ne
n : no of electrons or protons
e : basic unit charge
1e = 1.602×10^19
Riya
is the time quantized ? how ?
Mehmet
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Mayowa
Can you give an explanation.
Mayowa
there are some comment on the time quantized..
Mehmet
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
Mehmet
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
Mehmet
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
Tamoghna
it is just like bohr's theory.
Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
Aditya
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure nonflow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C
Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Abhishek
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Abhishek
Change in internal energy through q=Qw
Abhishek
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
what is the weight of the earth in space
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g
....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
Mehmet
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
Mayowa
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
Mehmet
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
Source:
OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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