# 21.1 Resistors in series and parallel  (Page 7/17)

 Page 7 / 17

## Section summary

• The total resistance of an electrical circuit with resistors wired in a series is the sum of the individual resistances: ${R}_{\text{s}}={R}_{1}+{R}_{2}+{R}_{3}+\text{.}\text{.}\text{.}\text{.}$
• Each resistor in a series circuit has the same amount of current flowing through it.
• The voltage drop, or power dissipation, across each individual resistor in a series is different, and their combined total adds up to the power source input.
• The total resistance of an electrical circuit with resistors wired in parallel is less than the lowest resistance of any of the components and can be determined using the formula:
$\frac{1}{{R}_{\text{p}}}=\frac{1}{{R}_{1}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{2}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{3}}+\text{.}\text{.}\text{.}\text{.}$
• Each resistor in a parallel circuit has the same full voltage of the source applied to it.
• The current flowing through each resistor in a parallel circuit is different, depending on the resistance.
• If a more complex connection of resistors is a combination of series and parallel, it can be reduced to a single equivalent resistance by identifying its various parts as series or parallel, reducing each to its equivalent, and continuing until a single resistance is eventually reached.

## Conceptual questions

A switch has a variable resistance that is nearly zero when closed and extremely large when open, and it is placed in series with the device it controls. Explain the effect the switch in [link] has on current when open and when closed.

What is the voltage across the open switch in [link] ?

There is a voltage across an open switch, such as in [link] . Why, then, is the power dissipated by the open switch small?

Why is the power dissipated by a closed switch, such as in [link] , small?

A student in a physics lab mistakenly wired a light bulb, battery, and switch as shown in [link] . Explain why the bulb is on when the switch is open, and off when the switch is closed. (Do not try this—it is hard on the battery!)

Knowing that the severity of a shock depends on the magnitude of the current through your body, would you prefer to be in series or parallel with a resistance, such as the heating element of a toaster, if shocked by it? Explain.

Would your headlights dim when you start your car’s engine if the wires in your automobile were superconductors? (Do not neglect the battery’s internal resistance.) Explain.

Some strings of holiday lights are wired in series to save wiring costs. An old version utilized bulbs that break the electrical connection, like an open switch, when they burn out. If one such bulb burns out, what happens to the others? If such a string operates on 120 V and has 40 identical bulbs, what is the normal operating voltage of each? Newer versions use bulbs that short circuit, like a closed switch, when they burn out. If one such bulb burns out, what happens to the others? If such a string operates on 120 V and has 39 remaining identical bulbs, what is then the operating voltage of each?

full meaning of GPS system
how to prove that Newton's law of universal gravitation F = GmM ______ R²
sir dose it apply to the human system
prove that the centrimental force Fc= M1V² _________ r
prove that centripetal force Fc = MV² ______ r
Kaka
how lesers can transmit information
griffts bridge derivative
below me
please explain; when a glass rod is rubbed with silk, it becomes positive and the silk becomes negative- yet both attracts dust. does dust have third types of charge that is attracted to both positive and negative
what is a conductor
Timothy
hello
Timothy
below me
why below you
Timothy
no....I said below me ...... nothing below .....ok?
dust particles contains both positive and negative charge particles
Mbutene
corona charge can verify
Stephen
when pressure increases the temperature remain what?
remains the temperature
betuel
what is frequency
define precision briefly
CT scanners do not detect details smaller than about 0.5 mm. Is this limitation due to the wavelength of x rays? Explain.
hope this helps
what's critical angle
The Critical Angle Derivation So the critical angle is defined as the angle of incidence that provides an angle of refraction of 90-degrees. Make particular note that the critical angle is an angle of incidence value. For the water-air boundary, the critical angle is 48.6-degrees.
okay whatever
Chidalu
pls who can give the definition of relative density?
Temiloluwa
the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas.
Chidalu
What is momentum
mass ×velocity
Chidalu
it is the product of mass ×velocity of an object
Chidalu
how do I highlight a sentence]p? I select the sentence but get options like copy or web search but no highlight. tks. src
then you can edit your work anyway you want
Wat is the relationship between Instataneous velocity
Instantaneous velocity is defined as the rate of change of position for a time interval which is almost equal to zero
Astronomy