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Pictures are a schematic drawing of a diode in a circuit with the ammeter, voltmeter, and resistor included into the chain. In the left picture the anode is positive and the cathode is negative; in the right picture the anode is negative and the cathode is positive.
A diode is a semiconducting device that allows current flow only if the diode is forward biased, which means that the anode is positive and the cathode is negative.

A plot of current versus voltage is shown in [link] . Note that the behavior of the diode is shown as current versus voltage, whereas the resistor operation was shown as voltage versus current. A diode consists of an anode and a cathode. When the anode is at a negative potential and the cathode is at a positive potential, as shown in part (a), the diode is said to have reverse bias. With reverse bias, the diode has an extremely large resistance and there is very little current flow—essentially zero current—through the diode and the resistor. As the voltage applied to the circuit increases, the current remains essentially zero, until the voltage reaches the breakdown voltage and the diode conducts current, as shown in [link] . When the battery and the potential across the diode are reversed, making the anode positive and the cathode negative, the diode conducts and current flows through the diode if the voltage is greater than 0.7 V. The resistance of the diode is close to zero. (This is the reason for the resistor in the circuit; if it were not there, the current would become very large.) You can see from the graph in [link] that the voltage and the current do not have a linear relationship. Thus, the diode is an example of a nonohmic device.

Figure is a plot of current versus voltage. When the voltage across the diode is negative and small, there is very little current flow through the diode. As the voltage reaches the breakdown voltage, the current flow drastically increases. When the voltage across the diode is positive and greater than 0.7 V, the diode conducts. As the voltage applied increases, the current through the diode increases, but the voltage across the diode remains approximately 0.7 V.
When the voltage across the diode is negative and small, there is very little current flow through the diode. As the voltage reaches the breakdown voltage, the diode conducts. When the voltage across the diode is positive and greater than 0.7 V (the actual voltage value depends on the diode), the diode conducts. As the voltage applied increases, the current through the diode increases, but the voltage across the diode remains approximately 0.7 V.

Ohm’s law is commonly stated as V = I R , but originally it was stated as a microscopic view, in terms of the current density, the conductivity, and the electrical field. This microscopic view suggests the proportionality V I comes from the drift velocity of the free electrons in the metal that results from an applied electrical field. As stated earlier, the current density is proportional to the applied electrical field. The reformulation of Ohm’s law is credited to Gustav Kirchhoff, whose name we will see again in the next chapter.

Summary

  • Ohm’s law is an empirical relationship for current, voltage, and resistance for some common types of circuit elements, including resistors. It does not apply to other devices, such as diodes.
  • One statement of Ohm’s law gives the relationship among current I , voltage V , and resistance R in a simple circuit as V = I R .
  • Another statement of Ohm’s law, on a microscopic level, is J = σ E .

Conceptual questions

In Determining Field from Potential , resistance was defined as R V I . In this section, we presented Ohm’s law, which is commonly expressed as V = I R . The equations look exactly alike. What is the difference between Ohm’s law and the definition of resistance?

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Shown below are the results of an experiment where four devices were connected across a variable voltage source. The voltage is increased and the current is measured. Which device, if any, is an ohmic device?

Figure is a plot of current versus voltage. For A, current originally increases with voltage, then saturates and remains the same. For B, current linearly increases with voltage. For C current increases with voltage at a growing late. For D current decreases with voltage approaching zero.

Device B shows a linear relationship and the device is ohmic.

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The current I is measured through a sample of an ohmic material as a voltage V is applied. (a) What is the current when the voltage is doubled to 2 V (assume the change in temperature of the material is negligible)? (b) What is the voltage applied is the current measured is 0.2 I (assume the change in temperature of the material is negligible)? What will happen to the current if the material if the voltage remains constant, but the temperature of the material increases significantly?

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Problems

A 2.2 -k Ω resistor is connected across a D cell battery (1.5 V). What is the current through the resistor?

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A resistor rated at 250 k Ω is connected across two D cell batteries (each 1.50 V) in series, with a total voltage of 3.00 V. The manufacturer advertises that their resistors are within 5% of the rated value. What are the possible minimum current and maximum current through the resistor?

R min = 2.375 × 10 5 Ω , I min = 12.63 μ A R max = 2.625 × 10 5 Ω , I max = 11.43 μ A

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A resistor is connected in series with a power supply of 20.00 V. The current measure is 0.50 A. What is the resistance of the resistor?

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A resistor is placed in a circuit with an adjustable voltage source. The voltage across and the current through the resistor and the measurements are shown below. Estimate the resistance of the resistor.

Figure is a plot of voltage versus current. There is a linear relationship between voltage and the current. It is zero Volts at zero Amperes, 200 Volts at 2 Amperes, 400 Volts at 4 Amperes, 600 Volts at 6 Amperes, and 800 Volts at 8 Amperes.

R = 100 Ω

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The following table show the measurements of a current through and the voltage across a sample of material. Plot the data, and assuming the object is an ohmic device, estimate the resistance.

I (A) V (V)
0 3
2 23
4 39
6 58
8 77
10 100
12 119
14 142
16 162
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Questions & Answers

it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
Ashok Reply
what is the weight of the earth in space
peterpaul Reply
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
Ifeoma Reply
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
Mateshwar Reply
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe Reply
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
does your app come with video lessons?
Ahmed Reply
What is vector
Ajibola Reply
Vector is a quantity having a direction as well as magnitude
Damilare
tell me about charging and discharging of capacitors
Ahemen Reply
a big and a small metal spheres are connected by a wire, which of this has the maximum electric potential on the surface.
Bundi Reply
3 capacitors 2nf,3nf,4nf are connected in parallel... what is the equivalent capacitance...and what is the potential difference across each capacitor if the EMF is 500v
Prince Reply
equivalent capacitance is 9nf nd pd across each capacitor is 500v
santanu
four effect of heat on substances
Prince Reply
why we can find a electric mirror image only in a infinite conducting....why not in finite conducting plate..?
Rima Reply
because you can't fit the boundary conditions.
Jorge
what is the dimensions for VISCOUNSITY (U)
Branda
what is thermodynamics
Aniket Reply
the study of heat an other form of energy.
John
heat is internal kinetic energy of a body but it doesnt mean heat is energy contained in a body because heat means transfer of energy due to difference in temperature...and in thermo-dynamics we study cause, effect, application, laws, hypothesis and so on about above mentioned phenomenon in detail.
ing
It is abranch of physical chemistry which deals with the interconversion of all form of energy
Vishal
what is colamb,s law.?
Muhammad Reply
it is a low studied the force between 2 charges F=q.q`\r.r
Mostafa
what is the formula of del in cylindrical, polar media
Birengeso Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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