# 9.4 Ohm's law  (Page 2/7)

 Page 2 / 7 A resistor is placed in a circuit with a battery. The voltage applied varies from −10.00 V to +10.00 V, increased by 1.00-V increments. A plot shows values of the voltage versus the current typical of what a casual experimenter might find.

In this experiment, the voltage applied across the resistor varies from −10.00 to +10.00 V, by increments of 1.00 V. The current through the resistor and the voltage across the resistor are measured. A plot is made of the voltage versus the current, and the result is approximately linear. The slope of the line is the resistance, or the voltage divided by the current. This result is known as Ohm’s law    :

$V=IR,$

where V is the voltage measured in volts across the object in question, I is the current measured through the object in amps, and R is the resistance in units of ohms. As stated previously, any device that shows a linear relationship between the voltage and the current is known as an ohmic device. A resistor is therefore an ohmic device.

## Measuring resistance

A carbon resistor at room temperature $\left(20\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}\right)$ is attached to a 9.00-V battery and the current measured through the resistor is 3.00 mA. (a) What is the resistance of the resistor measured in ohms? (b) If the temperature of the resistor is increased to $60\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ by heating the resistor, what is the current through the resistor?

## Strategy

(a) The resistance can be found using Ohm’s law. Ohm’s law states that $V=IR$ , so the resistance can be found using $R=V\text{/}I$ .

(b) First, the resistance is temperature dependent so the new resistance after the resistor has been heated can be found using $R={R}_{0}\left(1+\alpha \text{Δ}T\right)$ . The current can be found using Ohm’s law in the form $I=V\text{/}R$ .

## Solution

1. Using Ohm’s law and solving for the resistance yields the resistance at room temperature:
$R=\frac{V}{I}=\frac{9.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{V}}{3.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{A}}=3.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ω}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}=3.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{k}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ω}.$
2. The resistance at $60\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ can be found using $R={R}_{0}\left(1+\alpha \text{Δ}T\right)$ where the temperature coefficient for carbon is $\alpha =-0.0005$ . $R={R}_{0}\left(1+\alpha \text{Δ}T\right)=3.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\left(1-0.0005\left(60\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}-20\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}\right)\right)=2.94\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{k}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ω}$ .
The current through the heated resistor is
$I=\frac{V}{R}=\frac{9.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{V}}{2.94\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ω}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}}=3.06\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-3}\text{A}=3.06\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mA}.$

## Significance

A change in temperature of $40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ resulted in a 2.00% change in current. This may not seem like a very great change, but changing electrical characteristics can have a strong effect on the circuits. For this reason, many electronic appliances, such as computers, contain fans to remove the heat dissipated by components in the electric circuits.

Check Your Understanding The voltage supplied to your house varies as $V\left(t\right)={V}_{\text{max}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\left(2\pi ft\right)$ . If a resistor is connected across this voltage, will Ohm’s law $V=IR$ still be valid?

Yes, Ohm’s law is still valid. At every point in time the current is equal to $I\left(t\right)=V\left(t\right)\text{/}R$ , so the current is also a function of time, $I\left(t\right)=\frac{{V}_{\text{max}}}{R}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\left(2\pi ft\right)$ .

See how the equation form of Ohm’s law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm’s law. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Nonohmic devices do not exhibit a linear relationship between the voltage and the current. One such device is the semiconducting circuit element known as a diode. A diode    is a circuit device that allows current flow in only one direction. A diagram of a simple circuit consisting of a battery, a diode, and a resistor is shown in [link] . Although we do not cover the theory of the diode in this section, the diode can be tested to see if it is an ohmic or a nonohmic device.

#### Questions & Answers

a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
Abu Reply
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
Jeff
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
Lord Reply
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
MPL Reply
what is charge quantization
Mayowa Reply
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e ) q = ne n : no of electrons or protons e : basic unit charge 1e = 1.602×10^-19
Riya
is the time quantized ? how ?
Mehmet
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Mayowa
Can you give an explanation.
Mayowa
there are some comment on the time -quantized..
Mehmet
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
Mehmet
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
Mehmet
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
Tamoghna
it is just like bohr's theory. Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
Aditya
determine absolute zero
OFERE Reply
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
Opeyemi Reply
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Abhishek
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Abhishek
Change in internal energy through q=Q-w
Abhishek
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
Gwam Reply
what is copper loss
timileyin Reply
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
Ashok Reply
what is the weight of the earth in space
peterpaul Reply
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
Ifeoma Reply
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
Mehmet
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
Mayowa
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
Mehmet
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
Mateshwar Reply
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe Reply
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
does your app come with video lessons?
Ahmed Reply
What is vector
Ajibola Reply
Vector is a quantity having a direction as well as magnitude
Damilare

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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