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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • State Gauss’s law
  • Explain the conditions under which Gauss’s law may be used
  • Apply Gauss’s law in appropriate systems

We can now determine the electric flux through an arbitrary closed surface due to an arbitrary charge distribution. We found that if a closed surface does not have any charge inside where an electric field line can terminate, then any electric field line entering the surface at one point must necessarily exit at some other point of the surface. Therefore, if a closed surface does not have any charges inside the enclosed volume, then the electric flux through the surface is zero. Now, what happens to the electric flux if there are some charges inside the enclosed volume? Gauss’s law gives a quantitative answer to this question.

To get a feel for what to expect, let’s calculate the electric flux through a spherical surface around a positive point charge q , since we already know the electric field in such a situation. Recall that when we place the point charge at the origin of a coordinate system, the electric field at a point P that is at a distance r from the charge at the origin is given by

E P = 1 4 π ε 0 1 r 2 r ^ ,

where r ^ is the radial vector from the charge at the origin to the point P. We can use this electric field to find the flux through the spherical surface of radius r , as shown in [link] .

A sphere labeled S with radius R is shown. At its center, is a small circle with a plus sign, labeled q. A small patch on the sphere is labeled dA. Two arrows point outward from here, perpendicular to the surface of the sphere. The smaller arrow is labeled n hat equal to r hat. The longer arrow is labeled vector E.
A closed spherical surface surrounding a point charge q .

Then we apply Φ = S E · n ^ d A to this system and substitute known values. On the sphere, n ^ = r ^ and r = R , so for an infinitesimal area dA ,

d Φ = E · n ^ d A = 1 4 π ε 0 q R 2 r ^ · r ^ d A = 1 4 π ε 0 q R 2 d A .

We now find the net flux by integrating this flux over the surface of the sphere:

Φ = 1 4 π ε 0 q R 2 S d A = 1 4 π ε 0 q R 2 ( 4 π R 2 ) = q ε 0 .

where the total surface area of the spherical surface is 4 π R 2 . This gives the flux through the closed spherical surface at radius r as

Φ = q ε 0 .

A remarkable fact about this equation is that the flux is independent of the size of the spherical surface. This can be directly attributed to the fact that the electric field of a point charge decreases as 1 / r 2 with distance, which just cancels the r 2 rate of increase of the surface area.

Electric field lines picture

An alternative way to see why the flux through a closed spherical surface is independent of the radius of the surface is to look at the electric field lines. Note that every field line from q that pierces the surface at radius R 1 also pierces the surface at R 2 ( [link] ).

Figure shows three concentric circles. The smallest one at the center is labeled q, the middle one has radius R1 and the largest one has radius R2. Eight arrows radiate outward from the center in all eight directions.
Flux through spherical surfaces of radii R 1 and R 2 enclosing a charge q are equal, independent of the size of the surface, since all E -field lines that pierce one surface from the inside to outside direction also pierce the other surface in the same direction.

Therefore, the net number of electric field lines passing through the two surfaces from the inside to outside direction is equal. This net number of electric field lines, which is obtained by subtracting the number of lines in the direction from outside to inside from the number of lines in the direction from inside to outside gives a visual measure of the electric flux through the surfaces.

Questions & Answers

if 6.0×10^13 electrons are placed on a metal sphere of charge 9.0micro Coulombs, what is the net charge on the sphere
Rita Reply
18.51micro Coulombs
Is it possible to find the magnetic field of a circular loop at the centre by using ampere's law?
Rb Reply
Is it possible to find the magnetic field of a circular loop at it's centre?
Rb Reply
The density of a gas of relative molecular mass 28 at a certain temperature is 0.90 K kgmcube.The root mean square speed of the gas molecules at that temperature is 602ms.Assuming that the rate of diffusion of a gas in inversely proportional to the square root of its density,calculate the density of
Gifty Reply
A hot liquid at 80degree Celsius is added to 600g of the same liquid originally at 10 degree Celsius. when the mixture reaches 30 degree Celsius, what will be the total mass of the liquid?
what is electrostatics
Yakub Reply
Study of charges which are at rest
Explain Kinematics
Glory Reply
Two equal positive charges are repelling each other. The force on the charge on the left is 3.0 Newtons. Using your notes on Coulomb's law, and the forces acting on each of the charges, what is the force on the charge on the right?
Nya Reply
Using the same two positive charges, the left positive charge is increased so that its charge is 4 times LARGER than the charge on the right. Using your notes on Coulomb's law and changes to the charge, once the charge is increased, what is the new force of repulsion between the two positive charges?
A mass 'm' is attached to a spring oscillates every 5 second. If the mass is increased by a 5 kg, the period increases by 3 second. Find its initial mass 'm'
Md Reply
a hot water tank containing 50,000g of water is heated by an electric immersion heater rated at 3kilowatt,240volt, calculate the current
Samuel Reply
what is charge
Aamir Reply
product of current and time
Why always amber gain electrons and fur loose electrons? Why the opposite doesn't happen?
Mohammed Reply
A closely wound search coil has an area of 4cm^2,1000 turns and a resistance of 40ohm. It is connected to a ballistic galvanometer whose resistance is 24 ohm. When coil is rotated from a position parallel to uniform magnetic field to one perpendicular to field,the galvanometer indicates a charge
Palak Reply
Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
Michael Reply
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Bysteria Reply
LOAK Reply
he's the father of 3 newton law
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
Sir Isaac Newton's name comes in the list of great scientists in this world
He is a far greatest, recognized scientist for his laws, 1,2,3 in motion, dynamic etc
Practice Key Terms 1

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