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Conceptual questions

Is it possible to determine whether a change in internal energy is caused by heat transferred, by work performed, or by a combination of the two?

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When a liquid is vaporized, its change in internal energy is not equal to the heat added. Why?

Some of the energy goes into changing the phase of the liquid to gas.

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Why does a bicycle pump feel warm as you inflate your tire?

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Is it possible for the temperature of a system to remain constant when heat flows into or out of it? If so, give examples.

Yes, as long as the work done equals the heat added there will be no change in internal energy and thereby no change in temperature. When water freezes or when ice melts while removing or adding heat, respectively, the temperature remains constant.

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Problems

A gas at a pressure of 2.00 atm undergoes a quasi-static isobaric expansion from 3.00 to 5.00 L. How much work is done by the gas?

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It takes 500 J of work to compress quasi-statically 0.50 mol of an ideal gas to one-fifth its original volume. Calculate the temperature of the gas, assuming it remains constant during the compression.

74 K

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It is found that, when a dilute gas expands quasi-statically from 0.50 to 4.0 L, it does 250 J of work. Assuming that the gas temperature remains constant at 300 K, how many moles of gas are present?

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In a quasi-static isobaric expansion, 500 J of work are done by the gas. If the gas pressure is 0.80 atm, what is the fractional increase in the volume of the gas, assuming it was originally at 20.0 L?

1.4 times

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When a gas undergoes a quasi-static isobaric change in volume from 10.0 to 2.0 L, 15 J of work from an external source are required. What is the pressure of the gas?

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An ideal gas expands quasi-statically and isothermally from a state with pressure p and volume V to a state with volume 4V. Show that the work done by the gas in the expansion is pV(ln 4).

pVln(4)

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As shown below, calculate the work done by the gas in the quasi-static processes represented by the paths (a) AB; (b) ADB; (c) ACB; and (d) ADCB.

The figure is a plot of pressure, p, in atmospheres on the vertical axis as a function of volume, V, in Liters on the horizontal axis. The horizontal volume scale runs from 0 to 5.0 Liters, and the vertical pressure scale runs from 0 to 4.0 atmospheres. Four points, A, B, C, and D are labeled. Point A is at 1.0 L, 1.0 atmospheres. Point B is at 3.0 L, 1.0 atmospheres. Point C is at 3.0 L, 2.0 atmospheres. Point D is at 1.0 L, 3.0 atmospheres. A straight horizontal line connects A to B, with an arrow pointing to the right indicating the direction from A to B. A straight horizontal line connects D to C, with an arrow to the right indicating the direction from D to C. A straight vertical line connects A to D, with an arrow pointing upward indicating the direction from A to D. A straight vertical line connects C to B, with an arrow downward indicating the direction from C to B. Finally, a straight diagonal line connects D to B with an arrow pointing in the direction from D to B.
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(a) Calculate the work done by the gas along the closed path shown below. The curved section between R and S is semicircular. (b) If the process is carried out in the opposite direction, what is the work done by the gas?

The figure is a plot of pressure, p, in atmospheres on the vertical axis as a function of volume, V, in Liters on the horizontal axis. The horizontal volume scale runs from 0 to 5.0 Liters, and the vertical pressure scale runs from 0 to 4.0 atmospheres. Two points, R and S, are labeled. Point R is at 1.0 L, 1.0 atmospheres. Point S is at 3.0 L, 1.0 atmospheres. A semicircle goes up from R and over to S, with an arrow showing the clockwise direction on the curve. A horizontal line returns, with an arrow pointing to the left, from S to R.

a. 160 J; b. –160 J

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An ideal gas expands quasi-statically to three times its original volume. Which process requires more work from the gas, an isothermal process or an isobaric one? Determine the ratio of the work done in these processes.

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A dilute gas at a pressure of 2.0 atm and a volume of 4.0 L is taken through the following quasi-static steps: (a) an isobaric expansion to a volume of 10.0 L, (b) an isochoric change to a pressure of 0.50 atm, (c) an isobaric compression to a volume of 4.0 L, and (d) an isochoric change to a pressure of 2.0 atm. Show these steps on a pV diagram and determine from your graph the net work done by the gas.


The figure is a plot of pressure, p, in atmospheres on the vertical axis as a function of volume, V, in Liters on the horizontal axis. The horizontal volume scale runs from 0 to 10 Liters, and the vertical pressure scale runs from 0 to 2 atmospheres. Four segments, A, B, C, and D are labeled. Segment A is a horizontal line with an arrow to the right, extending from 4 L to 10 L at a constant pressure of 2 atmospheres. Segment B is a vertical line with an arrow downward, extending from 2 atmospheres to 0.5 atmospheres at a constant 10 L.  Segment C is a horizontal line with an arrow to the left, extending from 10 L to 4 L at a constant pressure of 0.5 atmospheres. Segment D is a vertical line with an arrow upward, extending from 0.5 atmospheres to 2 atmospheres at a constant 4 L.
W = 900 J

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What is the average mechanical energy of the atoms of an ideal monatomic gas at 300 K?

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What is the internal energy of 6.00 mol of an ideal monatomic gas at 200 ° C ?

3.53 × 10 4 J

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Calculate the internal energy of 15 mg of helium at a temperature of 0 ° C .

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Two monatomic ideal gases A and B are at the same temperature. If 1.0 g of gas A has the same internal energy as 0.10 g of gas B, what are (a) the ratio of the number of moles of each gas and (b) the ration of the atomic masses of the two gases?

a. 1:1; b. 10:1

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The van der Waals coefficients for oxygen are a = 0.138 J · m 3 / mol 2 and b = 3.18 × 10 −5 m 3 / mol . Use these values to draw a van der Waals isotherm of oxygen at 100 K. On the same graph, draw isotherms of one mole of an ideal gas.

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Find the work done in the quasi-static processes shown below. The states are given as (p, V) values for the points in the pV plane: 1 (3 atm, 4 L), 2 (3 atm, 6 L), 3 (5 atm, 4 L), 4 (2 atm, 6 L), 5 (4 atm, 2 L), 6 (5 atm, 5 L), and 7 (2 atm, 5 L).

Figures a through f are plots of p on the vertical as a function of V on the horizontal axis. Figure a has points 1 and 2 at the same pressure and with V 2 larger than V 1. A horizontal line with a rightward arrow goes from point 1 to point 2. Figure b has points 1 and 3 at the same volume and with p 3 larger than p 1. A vertical line with an upward arrow goes from point 1 to point 3. Figure c has points 1 and 4, where p 1 is larger than p 4 and V 1 is smaller than V 4. A diagonal line with an arrow pointing down and to the right goes from point 1 to point 4. Figure d has points 1, 3 and 5, where V 1 and V 3 are equal, and larger than V 5. P 1 is smaller than P 5 which is smaller than P 3.  A diagonal line with an arrow pointing up and to the left goes from point 1 to point 5. A second diagonal line with an arrow pointing up and to the right goes from point 5 to point 3. Figure e has points 1, 2 and 6, where p 1 and p 2 are equal, and smaller than p 6. V 1 is smaller than V 6 which is smaller than V 2.  A diagonal line with an arrow pointing up and to the right goes from point 1 to point 6. A second diagonal line with an arrow pointing down and to the right goes from point 6 to point 2. Figure f has points 1, 2 and 7, where p 1 and p 2 are equal, and larger than p 7. V 1 is smaller than V 6 which is smaller than V 2.  A diagonal line with an arrow pointing down and to the right goes from point 1 to point 7. A second diagonal line with an arrow pointing up and to the right goes from point 7 to point 2.

a. 600 J; b. 0; c. 500 J; d. 200 J; e. 800 J; f. 500 J

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Questions & Answers

two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
Tijani Reply
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Ishom Reply
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Abdul
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
Gamma
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
TONEJIT Reply
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
Mudassar Reply
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?
DRASHTI Reply
what is an ideal gas?
Justine Reply
What is meant by zero Kelvin ?
Justine
Why does water cool when put in the pot ?
Justine
when we pour the water in a vessel(pot) the hot body(water) loses its heat to the surrounding in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.Thus,water cools.
rupendra
when we drop water in the pot, the pot body loses heat to surrounded in order to maintain thermal equilibrium thus,water cool.
Srabon
types of thermometer?
yemisi Reply
thermometer, Radiation thermometer and vapour pressure thermometer.liquid thermometer use thermometric liquid like mercury ,alcohol etc.
rupendra
liqid thermometer ,gas thermometer, resitance thermometer,thermo electric thermometer , radiation thermometer andvapour pressure thermometer
rupendra
calculate the quantity of heat required to rise the temperature of 1gmail of ice _10 to 110
Dargu Reply
A 40cm tall glass is filled with water to a depth of 30cm. A.what is the gauge pressure at the bottom of the glass? B.what is the absolute pressure at the bottom of the glass?
Abdulaziz Reply
A glass bottle full of mercury has mass 50g when heated through 35degree, 2.43g of mercury was expelled. Calculate the mass of the mercury remaining in the bottle
Anjorin Reply
Two electric point charges Q=2micro coulomb are fixed in space a distance 2.0cm apart. calculate the electric potential at the point p located a distance d/2 above the central point between two charges
Abdul Reply
what is wave
Ahmed Reply
A wave is a periodic disturbance which travel with a finite velocity and remains unchanged in type as it travels.
Justine
What's a wave motion?
Justine
What is charge bodies
Oje Reply
which have free elections
Usman
Show that if a vector is gradient of a scaler function then its line around a closed path is zero
Pak
Charge bodies are those which have free electons
Pak
the melting point of gold is 1064degree cencius and is boiling point is 2660 degree cenciu
Ilyas Reply
is Thomas's young experiment interference experiment or diffraction experiment or both
Ilyas Reply
An aqueous solution is prepared by diluting 3.30 mL acetone (d = 0.789 g/mL) with water to a final volume of 75.0 mL. The density of the solution is 0.993 g/mL. What is the molarity, molality and mole fraction of acetone in this solution?
eugene
A 4.0kg mess kit sliding on a fractionless surface explodes into two 2.0 kg parts.3.0 m/s due to north and 0.5 m/s 30 degree north of east. what is the speed of the mess kit
Shahid
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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