# 2.2 Pressure, temperature, and rms speed  (Page 10/18)

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What is the gauge pressure inside a tank of $4.86\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mol}$ of compressed nitrogen with a volume of $6.56\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{3}$ if the rms speed is 514 m/s?

If the rms speed of oxygen molecules inside a refrigerator of volume $22.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{ft}{\text{.}}^{3}$ is 465 m/s, what is the partial pressure of the oxygen? There are 5.71 moles of oxygen in the refrigerator, and the molar mass of oxygen is 32.0 g/mol.

21.1 kPa

The escape velocity of any object from Earth is 11.1 km/s. At what temperature would oxygen molecules (molar mass is equal to 32.0 g/mol) have root-mean-square velocity ${v}_{\text{rms}}$ equal to Earth’s escape velocity of 11.1 km/s?

The escape velocity from the Moon is much smaller than that from the Earth, only 2.38 km/s. At what temperature would hydrogen molecules (molar mass is equal to 2.016 g/mol) have a root-mean-square velocity ${v}_{\text{rms}}$ equal to the Moon’s escape velocity?

458 K

Nuclear fusion, the energy source of the Sun, hydrogen bombs, and fusion reactors, occurs much more readily when the average kinetic energy of the atoms is high—that is, at high temperatures. Suppose you want the atoms in your fusion experiment to have average kinetic energies of $6.40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-14}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ . What temperature is needed?

Suppose that the typical speed $\left({v}_{\text{rms}}\right)$ of carbon dioxide molecules (molar mass is 44.0 g/mol) in a flame is found to be 1350 m/s. What temperature does this indicate?

$3.22\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{K}$

(a) Hydrogen molecules (molar mass is equal to 2.016 g/mol) have ${v}_{\text{rms}}$ equal to 193 m/s. What is the temperature? (b) Much of the gas near the Sun is atomic hydrogen (H rather than ${\text{H}}_{2}\right).$ Its temperature would have to be $1.5\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{K}$ for the rms speed ${v}_{\text{rms}}$ to equal the escape velocity from the Sun. What is that velocity?

There are two important isotopes of uranium, ${}^{235}\text{U}$ and ${}^{238}\text{U}$ ; these isotopes are nearly identical chemically but have different atomic masses. Only ${}^{235}\text{U}$ is very useful in nuclear reactors. Separating the isotopes is called uranium enrichment (and is often in the news as of this writing, because of concerns that some countries are enriching uranium with the goal of making nuclear weapons.) One of the techniques for enrichment, gas diffusion, is based on the different molecular speeds of uranium hexafluoride gas, ${\text{UF}}_{6}$ . (a) The molar masses of ${}^{235}\text{U}$ and ${}^{238}{\text{UF}}_{6}$ are 349.0 g/mol and 352.0 g/mol, respectively. What is the ratio of their typical speeds ${v}_{\text{rms}}$ ? (b) At what temperature would their typical speeds differ by 1.00 m/s? (c) Do your answers in this problem imply that this technique may be difficult?

a. 1.004; b. 764 K; c. This temperature is equivalent to $915\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{ºF}$ , which is high but not impossible to achieve. Thus, this process is feasible. At this temperature, however, there may be other considerations that make the process difficult. (In general, uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion is indeed difficult and requires many passes.)

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the lungs is about 470 Pa when the total pressure in the lungs is 1.0 atm. What percentage of the air molecules in the lungs is carbon dioxide? Compare your result to the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, about 0.033%.

Dry air consists of approximately $78\text{%}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{nitrogen},21\text{%}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{oxygen},\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}1\text{%}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{argon}$ by mole, with trace amounts of other gases. A tank of compressed dry air has a volume of 1.76 cubic feet at a gauge pressure of 2200 pounds per square inch and a temperature of 293 K. How much oxygen does it contain in moles?

65 mol

(a) Using data from the previous problem, find the mass of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in 1 mol of dry air. The molar mass of ${\text{N}}_{2}$ is 28.0 g/mol, that of ${\text{O}}_{2}$ is 32.0 g/mol, and that of argon is 39.9 g/mol. (b) Dry air is mixed with pentane $\left({\text{C}}_{5}{\text{H}}_{12},$ molar mass 72.2 g/mol), an important constituent of gasoline, in an air-fuel ratio of 15:1 by mass (roughly typical for car engines). Find the partial pressure of pentane in this mixture at an overall pressure of 1.00 atm.

(a) Given that air is $21%$ oxygen, find the minimum atmospheric pressure that gives a relatively safe partial pressure of oxygen of 0.16 atm. (b) What is the minimum pressure that gives a partial pressure of oxygen above the quickly fatal level of 0.06 atm? (c) The air pressure at the summit of Mount Everest (8848 m) is 0.334 atm. Why have a few people climbed it without oxygen, while some who have tried, even though they had trained at high elevation, had to turn back?

a. 0.76 atm; b. 0.29 atm; c. The pressure there is barely above the quickly fatal level.

(a) If the partial pressure of water vapor is 8.05 torr, what is the dew point? $\left(760\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{torr}=1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{atm}=101,325\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pa}\right)$ (b) On a warm day when the air temperature is $35\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°C}$ and the dew point is $25\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°C}$ , what are the partial pressure of the water in the air and the relative humidity?

What is differential form of Gauss's law?
help me out on this question the permittivity of diamond is 1.46*10^-10.( a)what is the dielectric of diamond (b) what its susceptibility
a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
Jeff
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
what is charge quantization
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e ) q = ne n : no of electrons or protons e : basic unit charge 1e = 1.602×10^-19
Riya
is the time quantized ? how ?
Mehmet
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Mayowa
Can you give an explanation.
Mayowa
there are some comment on the time -quantized..
Mehmet
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
Mehmet
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
Mehmet
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
Tamoghna
it is just like bohr's theory. Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
determine absolute zero
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Abhishek
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Abhishek
Change in internal energy through q=Q-w
Abhishek
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
what is copper loss
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
what is the weight of the earth in space
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
Mehmet
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
Mayowa
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
Mehmet
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe