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Statistical mechanics says that in a gas maintained at a constant temperature through thermal contact with a bigger system (a “reservoir”) at that temperature, the fluctuations in internal energy are typically a fraction 1 / N of the internal energy. As a fraction of the total internal energy of a mole of gas, how big are the fluctuations in the internal energy? Are we justified in ignoring them?

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Which is more dangerous, a closet where tanks of nitrogen are stored, or one where tanks of carbon dioxide are stored?

One where nitrogen is stored, as excess CO 2 will cause a feeling of suffocating, but excess nitrogen and insufficient oxygen will not.

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In the problems in this section, assume all gases are ideal.

A person hits a tennis ball with a mass of 0.058 kg against a wall. The average component of the ball’s velocity perpendicular to the wall is 11 m/s, and the ball hits the wall every 2.1 s on average, rebounding with the opposite perpendicular velocity component. (a) What is the average force exerted on the wall? (b) If the part of the wall the person hits has an area of 3.0 m 2 , what is the average pressure on that area?

a. 0.61 N; b. 0.20 Pa

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A person is in a closed room (a racquetball court) with V = 453 m 3 hitting a ball ( m = 42.0 g ) around at random without any pauses. The average kinetic energy of the ball is 2.30 J. (a) What is the average value of v x 2 ? Does it matter which direction you take to be x ? (b) Applying the methods of this chapter, find the average pressure on the walls? (c) Aside from the presence of only one “molecule” in this problem, what is the main assumption in Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed that does not apply here?

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Five bicyclists are riding at the following speeds: 5.4 m/s, 5.7 m/s, 5.8 m/s, 6.0 m/s, and 6.5 m/s. (a) What is their average speed? (b) What is their rms speed?

a. 5.88 m/s; b. 5.89 m/s

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Some incandescent light bulbs are filled with argon gas. What is v rms for argon atoms near the filament, assuming their temperature is 2500 K?

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Typical molecular speeds ( v rms ) are large, even at low temperatures. What is v rms for helium atoms at 5.00 K, less than one degree above helium’s liquefaction temperature?

177 m/s

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What is the average kinetic energy in joules of hydrogen atoms on the 5500 ° C surface of the Sun? (b) What is the average kinetic energy of helium atoms in a region of the solar corona where the temperature is 6.00 × 10 5 K ?

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What is the ratio of the average translational kinetic energy of a nitrogen molecule at a temperature of 300 K to the gravitational potential energy of a nitrogen-molecule−Earth system at the ceiling of a 3-m-tall room with respect to the same system with the molecule at the floor?

4.54 × 10 3

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What is the total translational kinetic energy of the air molecules in a room of volume 23 m 3 if the pressure is 9.5 × 10 4 Pa (the room is at fairly high elevation) and the temperature is 21 °C ? Is any item of data unnecessary for the solution?

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The product of the pressure and volume of a sample of hydrogen gas at 0.00 ° C is 80.0 J. (a) How many moles of hydrogen are present? (b) What is the average translational kinetic energy of the hydrogen molecules? (c) What is the value of the product of pressure and volume at 200 ° C?

a. 0.0352 mol; b. 5.65 × 10 −21 J; c. 139 J

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Questions & Answers

Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
Michael Reply
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Bysteria Reply
LOAK Reply
he's the father of 3 newton law
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
how to name covalent bond
Bryan Reply
what do you understand by the drift voltage
Brunelle Reply
what do you understand by drift velocity
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
drift velocity
what is an electromotive force?
Danilo Reply
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
what is then chemical name of NaCl
Sagar Reply
sodium chloride
sodium chloride
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Comfort Reply
Wat is coplanar in physics
Humble Reply
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
Tijani Reply
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Ishom Reply
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
the average kinetic energy of molecules is called temperature. heat is the method or mode to transfer energy to molecules of an object but randomly, while work is the method to transfer energy to molecules in such manner that every molecules get moved in one direction.
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
Mudassar Reply
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?
what is an ideal gas?
Justine Reply
What is meant by zero Kelvin ?
Why does water cool when put in the pot ?
when we pour the water in a vessel(pot) the hot body(water) loses its heat to the surrounding in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.Thus,water cools.
when we drop water in the pot, the pot body loses heat to surrounded in order to maintain thermal equilibrium thus,water cool.
my personal opinion ideal gas means doesn't exist any gas that obey all rules that is made for gases, like when get the temp of a gas lower, it's volume decreases.since the gas will convert to liquid when the temp get lowest.. so you can imagine it, but you can't get a gas at the lowest T
Edit An ideal gas is a theoretically gascomposed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
ideal gases are real gases at low temperature
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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