# 2.2 Pressure, temperature, and rms speed  (Page 6/18)

 Page 6 / 18

Check Your Understanding If you consider a very small object, such as a grain of pollen, in a gas, then the number of molecules striking its surface would also be relatively small. Would you expect the grain of pollen to experience any fluctuations in pressure due to statistical fluctuations in the number of gas molecules striking it in a given amount of time?

Yes. Such fluctuations actually occur for a body of any size in a gas, but since the numbers of molecules are immense for macroscopic bodies, the fluctuations are a tiny percentage of the number of collisions, and the averages spoken of in this section vary imperceptibly. Roughly speaking, the fluctuations are inversely proportional to the square root of the number of collisions, so for small bodies, they can become significant. This was actually observed in the nineteenth century for pollen grains in water and is known as Brownian motion.

## Vapor pressure, partial pressure, and dalton’s law

The pressure a gas would create if it occupied the total volume available is called the gas’s partial pressure    . If two or more gases are mixed, they will come to thermal equilibrium as a result of collisions between molecules; the process is analogous to heat conduction as described in the chapter on temperature and heat. As we have seen from kinetic theory, when the gases have the same temperature, their molecules have the same average kinetic energy. Thus, each gas obeys the ideal gas law separately and exerts the same pressure on the walls of a container that it would if it were alone. Therefore, in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of partial pressures of the component gases , assuming ideal gas behavior and no chemical reactions between the components. This law is known as Dalton’s law of partial pressures    , after the English scientist John Dalton (1766–1844) who proposed it. Dalton’s law is consistent with the fact that pressures add according to Pascal’s principle.

In a mixture of ideal gases in thermal equilibrium, the number of molecules of each gas is proportional to its partial pressure. This result follows from applying the ideal gas law to each in the form $p\text{/}n=RT\text{/}V.$ Because the right-hand side is the same for any gas at a given temperature in a container of a given volume, the left-hand side is the same as well.

• Partial pressure is the pressure a gas would create if it existed alone.
• Dalton’s law states that the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of all of the gases present.
• For any two gases (labeled 1 and 2) in equilibrium in a container, $\frac{{p}_{1}}{{n}_{1}}=\frac{{p}_{2}}{{n}_{2}}.$

An important application of partial pressure is that, in chemistry, it functions as the concentration of a gas in determining the rate of a reaction. Here, we mention only that the partial pressure of oxygen in a person’s lungs is crucial to life and health. Breathing air that has a partial pressure of oxygen below 0.16 atm can impair coordination and judgment, particularly in people not acclimated to a high elevation. Lower partial pressures of ${\text{O}}_{2}$ have more serious effects; partial pressures below 0.06 atm can be quickly fatal, and permanent damage is likely even if the person is rescued. However, the sensation of needing to breathe, as when holding one’s breath, is caused much more by high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the blood than by low concentrations of oxygen. Thus, if a small room or closet is filled with air having a low concentration of oxygen, perhaps because a leaking cylinder of some compressed gas is stored there, a person will not feel any “choking” sensation and may go into convulsions or lose consciousness without noticing anything wrong. Safety engineers give considerable attention to this danger.

#### Questions & Answers

Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Who is ISSAAC NEWTON
he's the father of 3 newton law
Hawi
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
Ethem
how to name covalent bond
Who is ALEXANDER BELL
LOAK
what do you understand by the drift voltage
what do you understand by drift velocity
Brunelle
nothing
Gamal
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
graviton
drift velocity
graviton
what is an electromotive force?
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
Brunelle
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
Danilo
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
Brunelle
what is then chemical name of NaCl
sodium chloride
Azam
sodium chloride
Brunelle
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Wat is coplanar in physics
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
0.0844kg
Humble
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Abdul
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
Gamma
the average kinetic energy of molecules is called temperature. heat is the method or mode to transfer energy to molecules of an object but randomly, while work is the method to transfer energy to molecules in such manner that every molecules get moved in one direction.
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?
what is an ideal gas?
What is meant by zero Kelvin ?
Justine
Why does water cool when put in the pot ?
Justine
when we pour the water in a vessel(pot) the hot body(water) loses its heat to the surrounding in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.Thus,water cools.
rupendra
when we drop water in the pot, the pot body loses heat to surrounded in order to maintain thermal equilibrium thus,water cool.
Srabon
my personal opinion ideal gas means doesn't exist any gas that obey all rules that is made for gases, like when get the temp of a gas lower, it's volume decreases.since the gas will convert to liquid when the temp get lowest.. so you can imagine it, but you can't get a gas at the lowest T
Edit An ideal gas is a theoretically gascomposed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Gamma
ideal gases are real gases at low temperature
Brunelle