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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Classify magnetic materials as paramagnetic, diamagnetic, or ferromagnetic, based on their response to a magnetic field
  • Sketch how magnetic dipoles align with the magnetic field in each type of substance
  • Define hysteresis and magnetic susceptibility, which determines the type of magnetic material

Why are certain materials magnetic and others not? And why do certain substances become magnetized by a field, whereas others are unaffected? To answer such questions, we need an understanding of magnetism on a microscopic level.

Within an atom, every electron travels in an orbit and spins on an internal axis. Both types of motion produce current loops and therefore magnetic dipoles. For a particular atom, the net magnetic dipole moment is the vector sum of the magnetic dipole moments. Values of μ for several types of atoms are given in [link] . Notice that some atoms have a zero net dipole moment and that the magnitudes of the nonvanishing moments are typically 10 −23 A · m 2 .

Magnetic moments of some atoms
Atom Magnetic Moment ( 10 −24 A · m 2 )
H 9.27
He 0
Li 9.27
O 13.9
Na 9.27
S 13.9

A handful of matter has approximately 10 26 atoms and ions, each with its magnetic dipole moment. If no external magnetic field is present, the magnetic dipoles are randomly oriented—as many are pointed up as down, as many are pointed east as west, and so on. Consequently, the net magnetic dipole moment of the sample is zero. However, if the sample is placed in a magnetic field, these dipoles tend to align with the field (see [link] ), and this alignment determines how the sample responds to the field. On the basis of this response, a material is said to be either paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or diamagnetic.

In a paramagnetic material , only a small fraction (roughly one-third) of the magnetic dipoles are aligned with the applied field. Since each dipole produces its own magnetic field, this alignment contributes an extra magnetic field, which enhances the applied field. When a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, its magnetic dipoles also become aligned; furthermore, they become locked together so that a permanent magnetization results, even when the field is turned off or reversed. This permanent magnetization happens in ferromagnetic materials but not paramagnetic materials. Diamagnetic materials are composed of atoms that have no net magnetic dipole moment. However, when a diamagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, a magnetic dipole moment is directed opposite to the applied field and therefore produces a magnetic field that opposes the applied field. We now consider each type of material in greater detail.

Paramagnetic materials

For simplicity, we assume our sample is a long, cylindrical piece that completely fills the interior of a long, tightly wound solenoid. When there is no current in the solenoid, the magnetic dipoles in the sample are randomly oriented and produce no net magnetic field. With a solenoid current, the magnetic field due to the solenoid exerts a torque on the dipoles that tends to align them with the field. In competition with the aligning torque are thermal collisions that tend to randomize the orientations of the dipoles. The relative importance of these two competing processes can be estimated by comparing the energies involved. From [link] , the energy difference between a magnetic dipole aligned with and against a magnetic field is U B = 2 μ B . If μ = 9.3 × 10 −24 A · m 2 (the value of atomic hydrogen) and B = 1.0 T, then

Questions & Answers

A mass 'm' is attached to a spring oscillates every 5 second. If the mass is increased by a 5 kg, the period increases by 3 second. Find its initial mass 'm'
Md Reply
a hot water tank containing 50,000g of water is heated by an electric immersion heater rated at 3kilowatt,240volt, calculate the current
Samuel Reply
what is charge
Aamir Reply
Why always amber gain electrons and fur loose electrons? Why the opposite doesn't happen?
Mohammed Reply
A closely wound search coil has an area of 4cm^2,1000 turns and a resistance of 40ohm. It is connected to a ballistic galvanometer whose resistance is 24 ohm. When coil is rotated from a position parallel to uniform magnetic field to one perpendicular to field,the galvanometer indicates a charge
Palak Reply
Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
Michael Reply
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Bysteria Reply
LOAK Reply
he's the father of 3 newton law
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
how to name covalent bond
Bryan Reply
what do you understand by the drift voltage
Brunelle Reply
what do you understand by drift velocity
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
drift velocity
what is an electromotive force?
Danilo Reply
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
what is then chemical name of NaCl
Sagar Reply
sodium chloride
sodium chloride
Sodium Chloride.
common salt
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Comfort Reply
Wat is coplanar in physics
Humble Reply
on the same Cartesian plane
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
Tijani Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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