# 10.1 Electromotive force  (Page 3/11)

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Note that the reaction does not take place unless there is a complete circuit to allow two electrons to be supplied to the cathode. Under many circumstances, these electrons come from the anode, flow through a resistance, and return to the cathode. Note also that since the chemical reactions involve substances with resistance, it is not possible to create the emf without an internal resistance.

## Internal resistance and terminal voltage

The amount of resistance to the flow of current within the voltage source is called the internal resistance    . The internal resistance r of a battery can behave in complex ways. It generally increases as a battery is depleted, due to the oxidation of the plates or the reduction of the acidity of the electrolyte. However, internal resistance may also depend on the magnitude and direction of the current through a voltage source, its temperature, and even its history. The internal resistance of rechargeable nickel-cadmium cells, for example, depends on how many times and how deeply they have been depleted. A simple model for a battery consists of an idealized emf source $\epsilon$ and an internal resistance r ( [link] ).

Suppose an external resistor, known as the load resistance R , is connected to a voltage source such as a battery, as in [link] . The figure shows a model of a battery with an emf $\epsilon$ , an internal resistance r , and a load resistor R connected across its terminals. Using conventional current flow, positive charges leave the positive terminal of the battery, travel through the resistor, and return to the negative terminal of the battery. The terminal voltage of the battery depends on the emf, the internal resistance, and the current, and is equal to

${V}_{\text{terminal}}=\epsilon -Ir.$

For a given emf and internal resistance, the terminal voltage decreases as the current increases due to the potential drop Ir of the internal resistance.

A graph of the potential difference across each element the circuit is shown in [link] . A current I runs through the circuit, and the potential drop across the internal resistor is equal to Ir . The terminal voltage is equal to $\epsilon -Ir$ , which is equal to the potential drop    across the load resistor $IR=\epsilon -Ir$ . As with potential energy, it is the change in voltage that is important. When the term “voltage” is used, we assume that it is actually the change in the potential, or $\text{Δ}V$ . However, $\text{Δ}$ is often omitted for convenience.

The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
what is copper loss
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
what is the weight of the earth in space
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
does your app come with video lessons?
What is vector
Vector is a quantity having a direction as well as magnitude
Damilare
tell me about charging and discharging of capacitors
a big and a small metal spheres are connected by a wire, which of this has the maximum electric potential on the surface.
3 capacitors 2nf,3nf,4nf are connected in parallel... what is the equivalent capacitance...and what is the potential difference across each capacitor if the EMF is 500v
equivalent capacitance is 9nf nd pd across each capacitor is 500v
santanu
four effect of heat on substances
why we can find a electric mirror image only in a infinite conducting....why not in finite conducting plate..?
because you can't fit the boundary conditions.
Jorge
what is the dimensions for VISCOUNSITY (U)
Branda