# 1.6 Mechanisms of heat transfer  (Page 17/27)

 Page 17 / 27

(a) An exterior wall of a house is 3 m tall and 10 m wide. It consists of a layer of drywall with an R factor of 0.56, a layer 3.5 inches thick filled with fiberglass batts, and a layer of insulated siding with an R factor of 2.6. The wall is built so well that there are no leaks of air through it. When the inside of the wall is at $22\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ and the outside is at $-2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , what is the rate of heat flow through the wall? (b) More realistically, the 3.5-inch space also contains 2-by-4 studs—wooden boards 1.5 inches by 3.5 inches oriented so that 3.5-inch dimension extends from the drywall to the siding. They are “on 16-inch centers,” that is, the centers of the studs are 16 inches apart. What is the heat current in this situation? Don’t worry about one stud more or less.

For the human body, what is the rate of heat transfer by conduction through the body’s tissue with the following conditions: the tissue thickness is 3.00 cm, the difference in temperature is $2.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , and the skin area is $1.50\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ . How does this compare with the average heat transfer rate to the body resulting from an energy intake of about 2400 kcal per day? (No exercise is included.)

The rate of heat transfer by conduction is 20.0 W. On a daily basis, this is 1,728 kJ/day. Daily food intake is $2400\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kcal/d}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}4186\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/kcal}=10,050\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kJ/day}$ . So only 17.2% of energy intake goes as heat transfer by conduction to the environment at this $\text{Δ}T$ .

You have a Dewar flask (a laboratory vacuum flask) that has an open top and straight sides, as shown below. You fill it with water and put it into the freezer. It is effectively a perfect insulator, blocking all heat transfer, except on the top. After a time, ice forms on the surface of the water. The liquid water and the bottom surface of the ice, in contact with the liquid water, are at $0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . The top surface of the ice is at the same temperature as the air in the freezer, $-18\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C.}$ Set the rate of heat flow through the ice equal to the rate of loss of heat of fusion as the water freezes. When the ice layer is 0.700 cm thick, find the rate in m/s at which the ice is thickening. An infrared heater for a sauna has a surface area of $0.050\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ and an emissivity of 0.84. What temperature must it run at if the required power is 360 W? Neglect the temperature of the environment.

620 K

(a) Determine the power of radiation from the Sun by noting that the intensity of the radiation at the distance of Earth is $1370\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{W/m}}^{2}$ . Hint: That intensity will be found everywhere on a spherical surface with radius equal to that of Earth’s orbit. (b) Assuming that the Sun’s temperature is 5780 K and that its emissivity is 1, find its radius.

## Challenge problems

A pendulum is made of a rod of length L and negligible mass, but capable of thermal expansion, and a weight of negligible size. (a) Show that when the temperature increases by dT , the period of the pendulum increases by a fraction $\alpha LdT\text{/}2$ . (b) A clock controlled by a brass pendulum keeps time correctly at $10\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . If the room temperature is $30\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , does the clock run faster or slower? What is its error in seconds per day?

Denoting the period by P , we know $P=2\pi \sqrt{L\text{/}g}.$ When the temperature increases by dT , the length increases by $\alpha LdT$ . Then the new length is a. $P=2\pi \sqrt{\frac{L+\alpha LdT}{g}}=2\pi \sqrt{\frac{L}{g}\left(1+\alpha dT\right)}=2\pi \sqrt{\frac{L}{g}}\left(1+\frac{1}{2}\alpha dT\right)=P\left(1+\frac{1}{2}\alpha dT\right)$
by the binomial expansion. b. The clock runs slower, as its new period is 1.00019 s. It loses 16.4 s per day.

Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Who is ISSAAC NEWTON
he's the father of 3 newton law
Hawi
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
Ethem
how to name covalent bond
Who is ALEXANDER BELL
LOAK
what do you understand by the drift voltage
what do you understand by drift velocity
Brunelle
nothing
Gamal
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
graviton
drift velocity
graviton
what is an electromotive force?
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
Brunelle
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
Danilo
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
Brunelle
what is then chemical name of NaCl
sodium chloride
Azam
sodium chloride
Brunelle
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Wat is coplanar in physics
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
0.0844kg
Humble
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Abdul
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
Gamma
the average kinetic energy of molecules is called temperature. heat is the method or mode to transfer energy to molecules of an object but randomly, while work is the method to transfer energy to molecules in such manner that every molecules get moved in one direction.
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?
what is an ideal gas?
What is meant by zero Kelvin ?
Justine
Why does water cool when put in the pot ?
Justine
when we pour the water in a vessel(pot) the hot body(water) loses its heat to the surrounding in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.Thus,water cools.
rupendra
when we drop water in the pot, the pot body loses heat to surrounded in order to maintain thermal equilibrium thus,water cool.
Srabon
my personal opinion ideal gas means doesn't exist any gas that obey all rules that is made for gases, like when get the temp of a gas lower, it's volume decreases.since the gas will convert to liquid when the temp get lowest.. so you can imagine it, but you can't get a gas at the lowest T
Edit An ideal gas is a theoretically gascomposed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Gamma
ideal gases are real gases at low temperature
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