# 1.6 Mechanisms of heat transfer  (Page 16/27)

 Page 16 / 27

You leave a pastry in the refrigerator on a plate and ask your roommate to take it out before you get home so you can eat it at room temperature, the way you like it. Instead, your roommate plays video games for hours. When you return, you notice that the pastry is still cold, but the game console has become hot. Annoyed, and knowing that the pastry will not be good if it is microwaved, you warm up the pastry by unplugging the console and putting it in a clean trash bag (which acts as a perfect calorimeter) with the pastry on the plate. After a while, you find that the equilibrium temperature is a nice, warm $38.3\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . You know that the game console has a mass of 2.1 kg. Approximate it as having a uniform initial temperature of $45\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . The pastry has a mass of 0.16 kg and a specific heat of $3.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{k}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/}\left(\text{kg}·\text{ºC}\right),$ and is at a uniform initial temperature of $4.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . The plate is at the same temperature and has a mass of 0.24 kg and a specific heat of $0.90\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/}\left(\text{kg}·\text{ºC}\right)$ . What is the specific heat of the console?

$1.7\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kJ/}\left(\text{kg}·\text{ºC}\right)$

Two solid spheres, A and B , made of the same material, are at temperatures of $0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ and $100\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , respectively. The spheres are placed in thermal contact in an ideal calorimeter, and they reach an equilibrium temperature of $20\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . Which is the bigger sphere? What is the ratio of their diameters?

In some countries, liquid nitrogen is used on dairy trucks instead of mechanical refrigerators. A 3.00-hour delivery trip requires 200 L of liquid nitrogen, which has a density of $808\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}.$ (a) Calculate the heat transfer necessary to evaporate this amount of liquid nitrogen and raise its temperature to $3.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . (Use ${c}_{\text{P}}$ and assume it is constant over the temperature range.) This value is the amount of cooling the liquid nitrogen supplies. (b) What is this heat transfer rate in kilowatt-hours? (c) Compare the amount of cooling obtained from melting an identical mass of $0\text{-}\text{°}\text{C}$ ice with that from evaporating the liquid nitrogen.

a. $1.57\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kcal}$ ; b. $18.3\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kW}·\text{h}$ ; c. $1.29\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kcal}$

Some gun fanciers make their own bullets, which involves melting lead and casting it into lead slugs. How much heat transfer is needed to raise the temperature and melt 0.500 kg of lead, starting from $25.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ ?

A 0.800-kg iron cylinder at a temperature of $1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ is dropped into an insulated chest of 1.00 kg of ice at its melting point. What is the final temperature, and how much ice has melted?

$6.3\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . All of the ice melted.

Repeat the preceding problem with 2.00 kg of ice instead of 1.00 kg.

Repeat the preceding problem with 0.500 kg of ice, assuming that the ice is initially in a copper container of mass 1.50 kg in equilibrium with the ice.

$63.9\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , all the ice melted

A 30.0-g ice cube at its melting point is dropped into an aluminum calorimeter of mass 100.0 g in equilibrium at $24.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ with 300.0 g of an unknown liquid. The final temperature is $4.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ . What is the heat capacity of the liquid?

(a) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through a double-paned window that has a $1.50{\text{-m}}^{2}$ area and is made of two panes of 0.800-cm-thick glass separated by a 1.00-cm air gap. The inside surface temperature is $15.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C},$ while that on the outside is $-10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}.$ ( Hint: There are identical temperature drops across the two glass panes. First find these and then the temperature drop across the air gap. This problem ignores the increased heat transfer in the air gap due to convection.) (b) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through a 1.60-cm-thick window of the same area and with the same temperatures. Compare your answer with that for part (a).

a. 83 W; b. $1.97\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{W}$ ; The single-pane window has a rate of heat conduction equal to 1969/83, or 24 times that of a double-pane window.

what is motion?
where the solving of questions of this topic?
According to Nernst's distribution law there are about two solvents in which solutes undergo equilibria. But i don't understand how can you know which of two solvents goes bottom and one top? I real want to understand b'coz some books do say why they prefer one to top/bottom.
I need chapter 25 last topic
What is physics?
Abdulaziz
physics is the study of matter and energy in space and time and how they related to each other
Manzoor
interaction of matter and eneegy....
Abdullah
thanks for correcting me bro
Manzoor
What is electrostatics bassically?
study of charge at rest
wamis
A branch in physics that deals with statics electricity
Akona
what is PN junction?
Manzoor
please I don't understand the solution of the first example as in d working
what's the question? Write it here.
SABYASACHI
a cold body of 100°C and a hot body is of 100°F . Transfer heat = ?
you are given two metal spheres mounted on portable insulating support. Find a way to give them equal and opposite charges. you may use a glass rod rubbed with silk but may not touch it to the spheres. Do the spheres have to be of equal size for your method to work?
what is emotion?
Abdulaziz
in the 2nd example, for chapter 8.2 on page 3/3, I don't understand where the value 48uC comes from, I just couldn't get that value in my calculator.
are you talking about the capacitance combination problem
sam
please write the problem or send a snap of th page....I don't have the book in my vicinity.
SABYASACHI
yes, the 2nd example called Network of Capacitors on page 3/3 of section 8.2.
Anita
12 V = (Q1/12uF)+(Q1/6uF). So, Q1 = 12x4 = 48 uC.
sam
ohhhh OK thanks so much!!!!!!!
Anita
hello guys,, I'm asking to know something about, How can i know which solvent goes down and which does up in determination of partion coefficient(Nernst's distribution law). Please Need help because i have seen many contradictions via few of text books even some videos on youtube they don't say
Elia
what is electromagnetic force. do electric and magnetic force happen differently
yes
yes
Pranay
why
Godson
how?
Godson
when electric charge exert force on another electric charge then this force is known as electrostatic force and when a magnet exert force on another magnet then this force is known as magnetic force and when force exerted on magnet due to varying electric field then this electromagnetic force
Ilyas
Yes
Akona
derived the electric potential due to disk of charge
how can we derived potential electric due to the disk
aron
how can you derived electric potential of a disk
aron
how can you derived electric potential due to disk
aron
where is response?
aron
what is difference between heat and temperature?
temperature is the measure of degree of hotness or coldness. on the other hand, heat is the form of energy, which causes temperature. So we can safely say, heat is the reason and temperature is its consequence.
SABYASACHI
Heat is the reason and temperature is the consequences
Angela
how many liquid metals do we have
do we have gasses as metals
Jeffery
who knows should please tell us
yes...gallium & cesium
Idris
Hg is liquid. No metal gasses at standard temp and pressure
Shane
I don't ever understand any of this formulae
which formula
How to determine a temperature scale
what is the formula for absolute error
Nyro   By By Lakeima Roberts By Prateek Ashtikar By  By  By