# 1.6 Mechanisms of heat transfer  (Page 14/27)

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A man consumes 3000 kcal of food in one day, converting most of it to thermal energy to maintain body temperature. If he loses half this energy by evaporating water (through breathing and sweating), how many kilograms of water evaporate?

2.59 kg

A firewalker runs across a bed of hot coals without sustaining burns. Calculate the heat transferred by conduction into the sole of one foot of a firewalker given that the bottom of the foot is a 3.00-mm-thick callus with a conductivity at the low end of the range for wood and its density is $300\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}$ . The area of contact is $25.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2},$ the temperature of the coals is $700\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , and the time in contact is 1.00 s. Ignore the evaporative cooling of sweat.

(a) What is the rate of heat conduction through the 3.00-cm-thick fur of a large animal having a $1.40{\text{-m}}^{2}$ surface area? Assume that the animal’s skin temperature is $32.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , that the air temperature is $-5.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , and that fur has the same thermal conductivity as air. (b) What food intake will the animal need in one day to replace this heat transfer?

a. 39.7 W; b. 820 kcal

A walrus transfers energy by conduction through its blubber at the rate of 150 W when immersed in $-1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ water. The walrus’s internal core temperature is $37.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$ , and it has a surface area of $2.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ . What is the average thickness of its blubber, which has the conductivity of fatty tissues without blood?

Compare the rate of heat conduction through a 13.0-cm-thick wall that has an area of $10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ and a thermal conductivity twice that of glass wool with the rate of heat conduction through a 0.750-cm-thick window that has an area of $2.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ , assuming the same temperature difference across each.

$\frac{Q}{t}=\frac{kA\left({T}_{2}-{T}_{1}\right)}{d}$ , so that
$\frac{{\left(Q\text{/}t\right)}_{\text{wall}}}{{\left(Q\text{/}t\right)}_{\text{window}}}=\frac{{k}_{\text{wall}}{A}_{\text{wall}}{d}_{\text{window}}}{{k}_{\text{window}}{A}_{\text{window}}{d}_{\text{wall}}}=\frac{\left(2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}0.042\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/s}·\text{m}·\text{°}\text{C}\right)\left(10.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}\right)\left(0.750\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-2}\text{m}\right)}{\left(0.84\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/s}·\text{m}·\text{°}\text{C}\right)\left(2.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}\right)\left(13.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-2}\text{m}\right)}$
This gives 0.0288 wall: window, or 35:1 window: wall

Suppose a person is covered head to foot by wool clothing with average thickness of 2.00 cm and is transferring energy by conduction through the clothing at the rate of 50.0 W. What is the temperature difference across the clothing, given the surface area is $1.40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ ?

Some stove tops are smooth ceramic for easy cleaning. If the ceramic is 0.600 cm thick and heat conduction occurs through the same area and at the same rate as computed in [link] , what is the temperature difference across it? Ceramic has the same thermal conductivity as glass and brick.

$\frac{Q}{t}=\frac{kA\left({T}_{2}-{T}_{1}\right)}{d}=\frac{kA\text{Δ}T}{d}⇒$
$\text{Δ}T=\frac{d\left(Q\text{/}t\right)}{kA}=\frac{\left(6.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}\right)\left(2256\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{W}\right)}{\left(0.84\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J/s}·\text{m}·\text{°}\text{C}\right)\left(1.54\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}\right)}=1046\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}=1.05\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\text{K}$

One easy way to reduce heating (and cooling) costs is to add extra insulation in the attic of a house. Suppose a single-story cubical house already had 15 cm of fiberglass insulation in the attic and in all the exterior surfaces. If you added an extra 8.0 cm of fiberglass to the attic, by what percentage would the heating cost of the house drop? Take the house to have dimensions 10 m by 15 m by 3.0 m. Ignore air infiltration and heat loss through windows and doors, and assume that the interior is uniformly at one temperature and the exterior is uniformly at another.

A closely wound search coil has an area of 4cm^2,1000 turns and a resistance of 40ohm. It is connected to a ballistic galvanometer whose resistance is 24 ohm. When coil is rotated from a position parallel to uniform magnetic field to one perpendicular to field,the galvanometer indicates a charge
Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Who is ISSAAC NEWTON
he's the father of 3 newton law
Hawi
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
Ethem
how to name covalent bond
Who is ALEXANDER BELL
LOAK
what do you understand by the drift voltage
what do you understand by drift velocity
Brunelle
nothing
Gamal
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
graviton
drift velocity
graviton
what is an electromotive force?
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
Brunelle
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
Danilo
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
Brunelle
what is then chemical name of NaCl
sodium chloride
Azam
sodium chloride
Brunelle
Sodium Chloride.
Ezeanyim
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Wat is coplanar in physics
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
0.0844kg
Humble
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Abdul
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
Gamma
the average kinetic energy of molecules is called temperature. heat is the method or mode to transfer energy to molecules of an object but randomly, while work is the method to transfer energy to molecules in such manner that every molecules get moved in one direction.
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?    By By   By By By