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Putting a lid on a boiling pot greatly reduces the heat transfer necessary to keep it boiling. Explain why.

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Your house will be empty for a while in cold weather, and you want to save energy and money. Should you turn the thermostat down to the lowest level that will protect the house from damage such as freezing pipes, or leave it at the normal temperature? (If you don’t like coming back to a cold house, imagine that a timer controls the heating system so the house will be warm when you get back.) Explain your answer.

Turn the thermostat down. To have the house at the normal temperature, the heating system must replace all the heat that was lost. For all three mechanisms of heat transfer, the greater the temperature difference between inside and outside, the more heat is lost and must be replaced. So the house should be at the lowest temperature that does not allow freezing damage.

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You pour coffee into an unlidded cup, intending to drink it 5 minutes later. You can add cream when you pour the cup or right before you drink it. (The cream is at the same temperature either way. Assume that the cream and coffee come into thermal equilibrium with each other very quickly.) Which way will give you hotter coffee? What feature of this question is different from the previous one?

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Broiling is a method of cooking by radiation, which produces somewhat different results from cooking by conduction or convection. A gas flame or electric heating element produces a very high temperature close to the food and above it. Why is radiation the dominant heat-transfer method in this situation?

Air is a good insulator, so there is little conduction, and the heated air rises, so there is little convection downward.

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On a cold winter morning, why does the metal of a bike feel colder than the wood of a porch?

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Problems

(a) Calculate the rate of heat conduction through house walls that are 13.0 cm thick and have an average thermal conductivity twice that of glass wool. Assume there are no windows or doors. The walls’ surface area is 120 m 2 and their inside surface is at 18.0 ° C , while their outside surface is at 5.00 ° C . (b) How many 1-kW room heaters would be needed to balance the heat transfer due to conduction?

a. 1.01 × 10 3 W ; b. One 1-kilowatt room heater is needed.

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The rate of heat conduction out of a window on a winter day is rapid enough to chill the air next to it. To see just how rapidly the windows transfer heat by conduction, calculate the rate of conduction in watts through a 3.00 -m 2 window that is 0.634 cm thick (1/4 in.) if the temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces are 5.00 ° C and −10.0 ° C , respectively. (This rapid rate will not be maintained—the inner surface will cool, even to the point of frost formation.)

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Calculate the rate of heat conduction out of the human body, assuming that the core internal temperature is 37.0 ° C , the skin temperature is 34.0 ° C , the thickness of the fatty tissues between the core and the skin averages 1.00 cm, and the surface area is 1.40 m 2 .

84.0 W

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Suppose you stand with one foot on ceramic flooring and one foot on a wool carpet, making contact over an area of 80.0 cm 2 with each foot. Both the ceramic and the carpet are 2.00 cm thick and are 10.0 ° C on their bottom sides. At what rate must heat transfer occur from each foot to keep the top of the ceramic and carpet at 33.0 ° C ?

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Questions & Answers

Using Kirchhoff's rules, when choosing your loops, can you choose a loop that doesn't have a voltage?
Michael Reply
how was the check your understand 12.7 solved?
Bysteria Reply
Who is ISSAAC NEWTON
LOAK Reply
he's the father of 3 newton law
Hawi
he is Chris Issaac's father :)
Ethem
how to name covalent bond
Bryan Reply
Who is ALEXANDER BELL
LOAK
what do you understand by the drift voltage
Brunelle Reply
what do you understand by drift velocity
Brunelle
nothing
Gamal
well when you apply a small electric field to a conductor that causes to add a little velocity to charged particle than usual, which become their average speed, that is what we call a drift.
graviton
drift velocity
graviton
what is an electromotive force?
Danilo Reply
It is the amount of other forms of energy converted into electrical energy per unit charge that flow through it.
Brunelle
How electromotive force is differentiated from the terminal voltage?
Danilo
in the emf power is generated while in the terminal pd power is lost.
Brunelle
what is then chemical name of NaCl
Sagar Reply
sodium chloride
Azam
sodium chloride
Brunelle
Sodium Chloride.
Ezeanyim
How can we differentiate between static point and test charge?
Comfort Reply
Wat is coplanar in physics
Humble Reply
two point charges +30c and +10c are separated by a distance of 80cm,compute the electric intensity and force on a +5×10^-6c charge place midway between the charges
Tijani Reply
0.0844kg
Humble
what is the difference between temperature and heat
Ishom Reply
Heat is the condition or quality of being hot While Temperature is ameasure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer
Abdul
Temperature is the one of heat indicators of materials that can be measured with thermometers, and Heat is the quantity of calor content in material that can be measured with calorimetry.
Gamma
the average kinetic energy of molecules is called temperature. heat is the method or mode to transfer energy to molecules of an object but randomly, while work is the method to transfer energy to molecules in such manner that every molecules get moved in one direction.
Adnan
2. A brass rod of length 50cm and diameter 3mm is joined to a steel rod of the same length and diameter. What is the change in length of the combined rod at 250°c( degree Celsius) if the original length are 40°c(degree Celsius) is there at thermal stress developed at the junction? The end of the rod are free to expand (coefficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0×10^-5, steel=1.2×10^-5k^1)
TONEJIT Reply
A charge insulator can be discharged by passing it just above a flame. Explain.
Mudassar Reply
of the three vectors in the equation F=qv×b which pairs are always at right angles?
DRASHTI Reply
what is an ideal gas?
Justine Reply
What is meant by zero Kelvin ?
Justine
Why does water cool when put in the pot ?
Justine
when we pour the water in a vessel(pot) the hot body(water) loses its heat to the surrounding in order to maintain thermal equilibrium.Thus,water cools.
rupendra
when we drop water in the pot, the pot body loses heat to surrounded in order to maintain thermal equilibrium thus,water cool.
Srabon
my personal opinion ideal gas means doesn't exist any gas that obey all rules that is made for gases, like when get the temp of a gas lower, it's volume decreases.since the gas will convert to liquid when the temp get lowest.. so you can imagine it, but you can't get a gas at the lowest T
Adnan
Edit An ideal gas is a theoretically gascomposed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Gamma
ideal gases are real gases at low temperature
Brunelle
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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