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Key equations

Linear thermal expansion Δ L = α L Δ T
Thermal expansion in two dimensions Δ A = 2 α A Δ T
Thermal expansion in three dimensions Δ V = β V Δ T
Heat transfer Q = m c Δ T
Transfer of heat in a calorimeter Q cold + Q hot = 0
Heat due to phase change (melting and freezing) Q = m L f
Heat due to phase change (evaporation and condensation) Q = m L v
Rate of conductive heat transfer P = k A ( T h T c ) d
Net rate of heat transfer by radiation P net = σ e A ( T 2 4 T 1 4 )

Conceptual questions

What are the main methods of heat transfer from the hot core of Earth to its surface? From Earth’s surface to outer space?

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When our bodies get too warm, they respond by sweating and increasing blood circulation to the surface to transfer thermal energy away from the core. What effect will those processes have on a person in a 40.0 - ° C hot tub?

Increasing circulation to the surface will warm the person, as the temperature of the water is warmer than human body temperature. Sweating will cause no evaporative cooling under water or in the humid air immediately above the tub.

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Shown below is a cut-away drawing of a thermos bottle (also known as a Dewar flask), which is a device designed specifically to slow down all forms of heat transfer. Explain the functions of the various parts, such as the vacuum, the silvering of the walls, the thin-walled long glass neck, the rubber support, the air layer, and the stopper.

Figure shows the cross section of a thermos. Glass walls with silvered surfaces form the inner container. It is suspended within the outer container with springs and rubber supports. There is a layer of air and a layer of vacuum between the two containers. the inner container is filled with hot or cold liquid.
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Some electric stoves have a flat ceramic surface with heating elements hidden beneath. A pot placed over a heating element will be heated, while the surface only a few centimeters away is safe to touch. Why is ceramic, with a conductivity less than that of a metal but greater than that of a good insulator, an ideal choice for the stove top?

It spread the heat over the area above the heating elements, evening the temperature there, but does not spread the heat much beyond the heating elements.

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Loose-fitting white clothing covering most of the body, shown below, is ideal for desert dwellers, both in the hot Sun and during cold evenings. Explain how such clothing is advantageous during both day and night.

Photograph of men wearing loose white clothing.
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One way to make a fireplace more energy-efficient is to have room air circulate around the outside of the fire box and back into the room. Detail the methods of heat transfer involved.

Heat is conducted from the fire through the fire box to the circulating air and then convected by the air into the room (forced convection).

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On cold, clear nights horses will sleep under the cover of large trees. How does this help them keep warm?

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When watching a circus during the day in a large, dark-colored tent, you sense significant heat transfer from the tent. Explain why this occurs.

The tent is heated by the Sun and transfers heat to you by all three processes, especially radiation.

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Satellites designed to observe the radiation from cold (3 K) dark space have sensors that are shaded from the Sun, Earth, and the Moon and are cooled to very low temperatures. Why must the sensors be at low temperature?

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Why are thermometers that are used in weather stations shielded from the sunshine? What does a thermometer measure if it is shielded from the sunshine? What does it measure if it is not?

If shielded, it measures the air temperature. If not, it measures the combined effect of air temperature and net radiative heat gain from the Sun.

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Questions & Answers

What is differential form of Gauss's law?
Rohit Reply
help me out on this question the permittivity of diamond is 1.46*10^-10.( a)what is the dielectric of diamond (b) what its susceptibility
OLUWA Reply
a body is projected vertically upward of 30kmp/h how long will it take to reach a point 0.5km bellow e point of projection
Abu Reply
i have to say. who cares. lol. why know that t all
Jeff
is this just a chat app about the openstax book?
Lord Reply
kya ye b.sc ka hai agar haa to konsa part
MPL Reply
what is charge quantization
Mayowa Reply
it means that the total charge of a body will always be the integral multiples of basic unit charge ( e ) q = ne n : no of electrons or protons e : basic unit charge 1e = 1.602×10^-19
Riya
is the time quantized ? how ?
Mehmet
What do you meanby the statement,"Is the time quantized"
Mayowa
Can you give an explanation.
Mayowa
there are some comment on the time -quantized..
Mehmet
time is integer of the planck time, discrete..
Mehmet
planck time is travel in planck lenght of light..
Mehmet
it's says that charges does not occur in continuous form rather they are integral multiple of the elementary charge of an electron.
Tamoghna
it is just like bohr's theory. Which was angular momentum of electron is intral multiple of h/2π
Aditya
determine absolute zero
OFERE Reply
The properties of a system during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P= 1.6bar, changes from constant volume of 0.3m³/kg at 20°C to a volume of 0.55m³/kg at 260°C. its constant pressure process is 3.205KJ/kg°C Determine: 1. Heat added, Work done, Change in Internal Energy and Change in Enthalpy
Opeyemi Reply
U can easily calculate work done by 2.303log(v2/v1)
Abhishek
Amount of heat added through q=ncv^delta t
Abhishek
Change in internal energy through q=Q-w
Abhishek
please how do dey get 5/9 in the conversion of Celsius and Fahrenheit
Gwam Reply
what is copper loss
timileyin Reply
this is the energy dissipated(usually in the form of heat energy) in conductors such as wires and coils due to the flow of current against the resistance of the material used in winding the coil.
Henry
it is the work done in moving a charge to a point from infinity against electric field
Ashok Reply
what is the weight of the earth in space
peterpaul Reply
As w=mg where m is mass and g is gravitational force... Now if we consider the earth is in gravitational pull of sun we have to use the value of "g" of sun, so we can find the weight of eaeth in sun with reference to sun...
Prince
g is not gravitacional forcé, is acceleration of gravity of earth and is assumed constante. the "sun g" can not be constant and you should use Newton gravity forcé. by the way its not the "weight" the physical quantity that matters, is the mass
Jorge
Yeah got it... Earth and moon have specific value of g... But in case of sun ☀ it is just a huge sphere of gas...
Prince
Thats why it can't have a constant value of g ....
Prince
not true. you must know Newton gravity Law . even a cloud of gas it has mass thats al matters. and the distsnce from the center of mass of the cloud and the center of the mass of the earth
Jorge
please why is the first law of thermodynamics greater than the second
Ifeoma Reply
every law is important, but first law is conservation of energy, this state is the basic in physics, in this case first law is more important than other laws..
Mehmet
First Law describes o energy is changed from one form to another but not destroyed, but that second Law talk about entropy of a system increasing gradually
Mayowa
first law describes not destroyer energy to changed the form, but second law describes the fluid drection that is entropy. in this case first law is more basic accorging to me...
Mehmet
define electric image.obtain expression for electric intensity at any point on earthed conducting infinite plane due to a point charge Q placed at a distance D from it.
Mateshwar Reply
explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe Reply
pls. explain the lack of symmetry in the field of the parallel capacitor
Phoebe
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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