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Key equations

Linear thermal expansion Δ L = α L Δ T
Thermal expansion in two dimensions Δ A = 2 α A Δ T
Thermal expansion in three dimensions Δ V = β V Δ T
Heat transfer Q = m c Δ T
Transfer of heat in a calorimeter Q cold + Q hot = 0
Heat due to phase change (melting and freezing) Q = m L f
Heat due to phase change (evaporation and condensation) Q = m L v
Rate of conductive heat transfer P = k A ( T h T c ) d
Net rate of heat transfer by radiation P net = σ e A ( T 2 4 T 1 4 )

Conceptual questions

What are the main methods of heat transfer from the hot core of Earth to its surface? From Earth’s surface to outer space?

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When our bodies get too warm, they respond by sweating and increasing blood circulation to the surface to transfer thermal energy away from the core. What effect will those processes have on a person in a 40.0 - ° C hot tub?

Increasing circulation to the surface will warm the person, as the temperature of the water is warmer than human body temperature. Sweating will cause no evaporative cooling under water or in the humid air immediately above the tub.

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Shown below is a cut-away drawing of a thermos bottle (also known as a Dewar flask), which is a device designed specifically to slow down all forms of heat transfer. Explain the functions of the various parts, such as the vacuum, the silvering of the walls, the thin-walled long glass neck, the rubber support, the air layer, and the stopper.

Figure shows the cross section of a thermos. Glass walls with silvered surfaces form the inner container. It is suspended within the outer container with springs and rubber supports. There is a layer of air and a layer of vacuum between the two containers. the inner container is filled with hot or cold liquid.
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Some electric stoves have a flat ceramic surface with heating elements hidden beneath. A pot placed over a heating element will be heated, while the surface only a few centimeters away is safe to touch. Why is ceramic, with a conductivity less than that of a metal but greater than that of a good insulator, an ideal choice for the stove top?

It spread the heat over the area above the heating elements, evening the temperature there, but does not spread the heat much beyond the heating elements.

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Loose-fitting white clothing covering most of the body, shown below, is ideal for desert dwellers, both in the hot Sun and during cold evenings. Explain how such clothing is advantageous during both day and night.

Photograph of men wearing loose white clothing.
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One way to make a fireplace more energy-efficient is to have room air circulate around the outside of the fire box and back into the room. Detail the methods of heat transfer involved.

Heat is conducted from the fire through the fire box to the circulating air and then convected by the air into the room (forced convection).

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On cold, clear nights horses will sleep under the cover of large trees. How does this help them keep warm?

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When watching a circus during the day in a large, dark-colored tent, you sense significant heat transfer from the tent. Explain why this occurs.

The tent is heated by the Sun and transfers heat to you by all three processes, especially radiation.

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Satellites designed to observe the radiation from cold (3 K) dark space have sensors that are shaded from the Sun, Earth, and the Moon and are cooled to very low temperatures. Why must the sensors be at low temperature?

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Why are thermometers that are used in weather stations shielded from the sunshine? What does a thermometer measure if it is shielded from the sunshine? What does it measure if it is not?

If shielded, it measures the air temperature. If not, it measures the combined effect of air temperature and net radiative heat gain from the Sun.

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Questions & Answers

Figure, shows a pencil partially immersed in a cup of water. Why does the pencil appear to be ?bent
what is heat capacity
Sessy Reply
defined as the amount of heat to be supplied to an object to produce a unit change in its temperature. The SI unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin
formula of acid hydride
Suman Reply
what is mass
Exildah Reply
mass is the amount of staff made up an object
physic is anatural science that deals about scleral
mass is accelaration divided force
mass is force divided by acceleration
Is the amout of matter contain in a body
what is the volume of a human being
Collins Reply
Why does the lines of force not touch each other 🇲🇲
Gbemisola Reply
what is physics
physics is the study of matter and energy and the interaction between them
what is unit
Rayyanu Reply
Please canu get more questions on electric field and electric flux please
is electric field directly proportional to the squared of a distance
Benjamin Reply
No electric field is inversely proportional to the squared distance between the charges
lets treat linear expansivity please
Ujah Reply
The bullet 2.00cm long is fired at 420/s and passes straight through a 10.0 cm thick board existing at 280 m/s.What is the average acceleration of the bullet through the board?
an unstretched spring is 12cm long .A load of 5N stretched it to 15cm .how long will it be under a load of 15N?
Benjamin how are u are u a freshman in the university
like 100 level
yes sir
l need a physics tutor
I think the best tutor is God and organic tutor in YouTube that guy is good
me too 100level
wow nice
from Nigeria and u
I am from Nigeria and u wow nice that something I use to always say
am from Ghana
studying what
Compare the electric flux through the surface of a cube of side length a that has a charge q at its center to the flux through a spherical surface of radius a with a charge q at its center.
Shari Reply
please I want to know how to solve increase in length
Why a charged capacitor has potential difference but not emf
Gideon Reply
what is the dimension symbol of temperature?
Keren Reply
what is the dimension symbol of temperature?
what's the meaning of enthalpy in terms of latent heat, internal energy, phase change
Anthony Reply
Enthalpy is the degree ofdisorderlinessof a substance
how to convert Kelvin to centigrade
Sangeetha Reply
what is the s, p, d, f in this table
s, p, d, f in this table
what kind of table this
Periodic table
what are waves
In physics, mathematics, and related fields, a wave is a propagating dynamic disturbance (change from equilibrium) of one or more quantities
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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