# 13.1 Principles of digital electronics  (Page 2/7)

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## Logic gates

There are five main types of logic gate: NOT, AND, OR, NAND and NOR. Each one makes its decision in a different way.

## The not gate

Problem: You want an automatic circuit in your office to turn on the heating in the winter. You already have a digital electronic temperature sensor. When the temperature is high, it sends out a 1. When the office is cold, it sends out a 0. If this signal were sent straight to the heater, the heater would turn on (1) when it was already hot, and would stay off when it was cold. This is wrong! To make the heater work, we need a circuit which will change a 0 (from the sensor) into a 1 (to send to the heater). This will make the heater come on when it is cold. You also want it to change a 1 (from the sensor) into a 0 (to send to the heater). This will turn the heater off when the room is hot. This circuit is called an inverter or NOT gate . It changes 0 into 1 (1 is NOT 0). It changes 1 into 0 (0 is NOT 1). It changes a signal into what it is NOT.

The symbol for the NOT gate is:

The action of the NOT gate can be written in a table called a truth table . The left column shows the possible inputs on different rows. The right column shows what the output (decision) of the circuit will be for that input. The truth table for the NOT gate is shown below.

 Input Output 0 1 1 0

When you read the truth table, the top row says, “If the input is 0, the output will be 1.” For our heater, this means, “If the room is cold, the heater will turn on.” The bottom row says, “If the input is 1, the output will be 0.” For our heater, this means, “If the room is hot, the heater will switch off.”

## The and gate

Problem: An airliner has two toilets. Passengers get annoyed if they get up from their seat only to find that both toilets are being used and they have to go back to their seat and wait. You want to fit an automatic circuit to light up a display if both toilets are in use. Then passengers know that if the light is off, there will be a free toilet for them to use. There is a sensor in each toilet. It gives out a 0 of the toilet is free, and a 1 if it is in use. You want to send a 1 to the display unit if both sensors are sending 1s. To do this, you use an AND gate.

The symbol for the AND gate is:

The truth table for the AND gate is shown below. An AND gate has two inputs (the NOT gate only had one). This means we need four rows in the truth table, one for each possible set of inputs. The first row, for example, tells us what the AND gate will do if both inputs are 0. In our airliner, this means that both toilets are free. The right column has a 0 showing that the output will be 0, so the display will not light up. The second row has inputs of 0 and 1 (the first toilet is free, the other is in use). Again the output is 0. The third row tells us what will happen if the inputs are 1 and 0 (the first toilet is in use, and the second is free). Finally, the last line tells us what will happen if both inputs are 1 (the first toilet is in use and the second toilet is in use). It is only in this case that the output is 1 and the display lights up.

#### Questions & Answers

Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
milani Reply
what is a free fall?
Beyanca Reply
is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Madman
Thats right
Beyanca
then Why ask when you Know the answer?
Madman
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Kenelioe Reply
what help you need
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
Madman
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
Madman
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani
hi guys i can explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry
Neil Reply
😂😂😂😂😂
Madman
yes
Lucky
yea
Kenelioe
guys 2mrrow I'm writing a test in chemistry I need help
Kenelioe
Hi guys. Can anyone please tell me what a functional group is?
Samukelo
a functional group depends on how many bonds there are between carbon atoms, if there are single bonds all the way it's an alkane, if there is a presence of at least one double bond it's a Alkene and if there's at least one triple bond it's an alkyne.
Olive
which quantity is measured in Watt?
Saara Reply
work
Absai
explain for me absai
Sboniso
is Power Not Work work is Measured In Joules it has Energy
Madman
thanks
Saara
Pleasure
Madman
what is galvanic cell ?
Oratile Reply
is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
Hope
how to understand alkane names
Sboniso Reply
suffix Ane in the IUPAC NAMING
Madman
elaborate a little more plz
Kenelioe
Alkanes are Saturated Meaning they don't have Multiple Bonds between Carbon Atoms and When you are Naming THEM THEY MUST END WITH (-ANE ) GET ME?
Madman
What are hydrocarbons
Phelo Reply
are organic Compounds with only Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms
Madman
whats the difference between aldehydes and ketones
Angel Reply
definition of chain parent
Lea Reply
what is wave?
Agness Reply
when butane burns in an excess of oxygen ,the products are
Slay
CO2 and H2O
GARY
Carbon dioxide and Water...
Thato
what is hydrocarbon
Ntswaki Reply
Hydrocarbon is a compostion of mainy carbon and hydrogen
Tsion
hydrocarbon compound made up of carbon and hydrogen only
Thembelani
25 element of physics
musah Reply
an object will remain at rest or move at a constant velocity unless acted upon a net force
Lebogang Reply
thank you
Thabiso
law of inertia
Joan
an object resisting the change in velocity.
Thabiso
newton first law of motion
Tshepo
An object will remain at rest, unless an unbalanced force acts on it.
Anga
or uniform motion
Thato
What is a molecule
Thabiso Reply
a molecule is a simplest structure unite of an elements
Else
thank you
Thabiso
Plz remind me the 1st Newton's law
Thabiso

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 12 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11244/1.2
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