# Polymers  (Page 2/6)

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## Initiation, propagation and termination

There are three stages in the process of addition polymerisation. Initiation refers to a chemical reaction that triggers off another reaction. In other words, initiation is the starting point of the polymerisation reaction. Chain propagation is the part where monomers are continually added to form a longer and longer polymer chain. During chain propagation, it is the reactive end groups of the polymer chain that react in each propagation step, to add a new monomer to the chain. Once a monomer has been added, the reactive part of the polymer is now in this last monomer unit so that propagation will continue. Termination refers to a chemical reaction that destroys the reactive part of the polymer chain so that propagation stops.

A polymerisation reaction takes place and the following polymer is formed:

Note: W, X, Y and Z could represent a number of different atoms or combinations of atoms e.g. H, F, Cl or CH ${}_{3}$ .

1. Give the structural formula of the monomer of this polymer.
2. To what group of organic compounds does this monomer belong?
3. What type of polymerisation reaction has taken place to join these monomers to form the polymer?
1. The monomer is:

2. The monomer has a double bond between two carbon atoms. The monomer must be an alkene.

3. In this example, unsaturated monomers combine to form a saturated polymer. No atoms are lost or gained for the bonds between monomers to form. They are simply added to each other. This is an addition reaction.

## Condensation polymerisation

In this type of reaction, two monomer molecules form a covalent bond and a small molecule such as water is lost in the bonding process. Nearly all biological reactions are of this type. Polyester and nylon are examples of polymers that form through condensation polymerisation.

1. Polyester Polyesters are a group of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many forms of polyesters, the term polyester usually refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET is made from ethylene glycol (an alcohol) and terephthalic acid (a carboxylic acid). In the reaction, a hydrogen atom is lost from the alcohol, and a hydroxyl group is lost from the carboxylic acid. Together these form one water molecule which is lost during condensation reactions. A new bond is formed between an oxygen and a carbon atom. This bond is called an ester linkage . The reaction is shown in [link] . Polyesters have a number of characteristics which make them very useful. They are resistant to stretching and shrinking, they are easily washed and dry quickly, and they are resistant to mildew. It is for these reasons that polyesters are being used more and more in textiles . Polyesters are stretched out into fibres and can then be made into fabric and articles of clothing. In the home, polyesters are used to make clothing, carpets, curtains, sheets, pillows and upholstery.

## Interesting fact

Polyester is not just a textile. Polyethylene terephthalate is in fact a plastic which can also be used to make plastic drink bottles. Many drink bottles are recycled by being reheated and turned into polyester fibres. This type of recycling helps to reduce disposal problems.
2. Nylon Nylon was the first polymer to be commercially successful. Nylon replaced silk, and was used to make parachutes during World War 2. Nylon is very strong and resistant, and is used in fishing line, shoes, toothbrush bristles, guitar strings and machine parts to name just a few. Nylon is formed from the reaction of an amine (1,6-diaminohexane) and an acid monomer (adipic acid) ( [link] ). The bond that forms between the two monomers is called an amide linkage . An amide linkage forms between a nitrogen atom in the amine monomer and the carbonyl group in the carboxylic acid.

#### Questions & Answers

how is ester formed
Aubrey Reply
how is n ester formed
Aubrey
Alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid
Texas
an athlete with a mass of 70kg runs at a velocity of 45km . determine the athlete's momentum
Lesedi Reply
Is that a velocity or something else
msawenkosi
45km/h i guess
Texas
Change to m/s
Texas
45km/h = 12.5 m/s p=mv =70×12.5 =875 kg.m/s
Thato
what are the measures of the rates of reaction
Lesego Reply
Volume Concentration Temperature Pressure Surface Area
Thato
the principle of superposition of waves
Sfundo Reply
what is work
Kool Reply
is this a group chat
Nobuhle Reply
Hey can y'all define newton's 2nd law
mthebzification
If a resultant force act on an object...the object will accelerate in the direction of a resultant force,the acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
mosa
how do you calculate tension force
Bulumko
use the formula Fnet=ma if there is tension connecting two objects
Sboniso
to calculate Tension, usually calculate acceleration first Draw separate free body diagrams for each body. Apply Fnet = ma to calculate Tension
Kevin
Hi people
Paul
how does temperature affect the equilibrium position
Blessing Reply
an increased temperature increases the average kinetic energy thus in turn increases the number of effective collisions........
Lwando
so...which reaction is favored between endothermic and exothermic .when temperature is increased..?
Blessing
exothermic reaction because energy is realised to the surroundings as heat and light energy ....graphical so much energy is realised as reactants to form product and because temperature is high rate of reaction is fast which means there is a successful collision
Code
INTEMENDO - INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS ENDOTHERMIC DETEMEXO - DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS EXOTHERMIC
Thato
an object will continue in a state of rest unless it is acted upon an unbalanced force
Junior Reply
Newton's Law 1
Code
First Newton's Law
Azola
Newton's first law
Surprise
newton first law
Thinavhuyo
Newton's first law
Blessing
when pressure is increased what happen to volume
Siphelo Reply
decreases
Code
care to explain?
Mpati
if pressure is applied to a pistol , the volume will decrease and particles will collide more frequently with the wall of a container .Each time they collide with the wall they exert a force on them .More collision means more force and the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
Because the volume has decreased , the particle will collide more frequently with the wall of a container and each time they collide with the wall of a container they exert a force on them.More collision means more force so the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
what is the difference between momentum and a change in momentum?
Chavonne Reply
How to name a branched molecule from right or left?
Vadin Reply
What's Free Fall
Senzo Reply
Free Fall means there is no acting force on that object.
Dingaletu
only gravitational force
Dingaletu
no external force acting on an object
Sphiwe
by only force of gravite
Sello
but gravitational force
Sphiwe
true
Lucky
a motion in which the only force acting is gravitational force
Blessing
and an object experiencing free fall is referred as a projectile
Blessing
Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
milani Reply
what is a free fall?
Beyanca Reply
is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Madman
Thats right
Beyanca
then Why ask when you Know the answer?
Madman
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Kenelioe Reply
what help you need
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
Madman
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
Madman
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 12 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11244/1.2
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