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Cellphone users are recommended to minimise their exposure to the radiation, by for example:

  1. Use hands-free to decrease the radiation to the head.
  2. Keep the mobile phone away from the body.
  3. Do not telephone in a car without an external antenna.

Exercise - penetrating ability of em radiation

  1. Indicate the penetrating ability of the different kinds of EM radiation and relate it to energy of the radiation.
  2. Describe the dangers of gamma rays, X-rays and the damaging effect of ultra-violet radiation on skin.


  1. Electromagnetic radiation has both a wave and a particle nature.
  2. Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of 3 × 10 8 m · s - 1 in a vacuum.
  3. The Electromagnetic spectrum consists of the follwing types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays.
  4. Gamma-rays have the most energy and are the most penetrating, while radio waves have the lowest energy and are the least penetrating.

Indigenous knowledge systems: animal behaviour

People have believed that animals can predict earthquakes and other natural disasters for centuries. As early as 373 B.C., historians recorded a massive exodus of animals, including rats, snakes and weasels, from the Greek city of Helice days before a quake struck causing massive devastation.

This topic is much debated and there are people that claim different behaviours for different kinds of animals, for example:

  • Dogs and cats : are believed by some to howl or bite their owners before natural disasters, they cite factors like a much stronger sense of smell.
  • Sharks : have been reported to move to deeper water before hurricanes, possibly because a sensitivity to changes in the air pressure preceding the hurricane.
  • Elephants : will allegedly trumpet and flee to higher ground before a tsunami arrived.

Others argue that many animals detect certain natural signals, such as the early tremblings of an earthquake, long before humans. This means they have opportunity to react before we can but argue that they exhibit no special understanding, they just flee as would any person hearing a shout of fire.

Another problem cited with these seemingly clairvoyant animals is that their psychic powers often are based on behaviors that people only recall after the event. Some animal behaviors happen frequently, but are not remembered unless an earthquake, tsunami, or mud slide follows. For example, if you see a dog cross a road, you just remember you saw a dog cross the road. But if an earthquake shook your neighborhood five minutes later, would you say the dog was fleeing?

Project: indigenous knowledge: animals and natural disasters.

Carry out research on the behavior of animals before natural disasters.

Pick one type of natural disaster (earthquake, flood, tsunami, etc.) and see what you can find about animals reacting to that type of disaster. Ask people you know about what they have heard to get a sense of folklore.

Then research the topic to find more information and remember to critically assess all information. Things to consider:

  • What scientific research has been conducted?
  • Which countries does that type of disaster usually occur in?
  • Do any of the native people of that country have legends/ideas about animals reacting to the disaster?
  • What do people believe leads to this behavior? i.e. do the animals have some mystic ability or are they more sensitive to anything then we are (such as low frequency radiation)

Present your findings to your class. Critically analyze all the information you collect and decide what you believe.

End of chapter exercise

  1. What is the energy of a photon of EM radiation with a frequency of 3 × 10 8  Hz?
  2. What is the energy of a photon of light with a wavelength of 660 nm?
  3. List the main types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength.
  4. List the main uses of:
    1. radio waves
    2. infrared
    3. gamma rays
    4. X-rays
  5. Explain why we need to protect ourselves from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
  6. List some advantages and disadvantages of using X-rays.
  7. What precautions should we take when using cell phones?
  8. Write a short essay on a type of electromagnetic waves. You should look at uses, advantages and disadvantages of your chosen radiation.
  9. Explain why some types of electromagnetic radiation are more penetrating than others.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Richard is sitting on his chair and reading a newspaper three (3) meters away from the door
Jeo Reply
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
Sharoon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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