<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The equilibrium constant

Equilibrium constant

The equilibrium constant (K c ), relates to a chemical reaction at equilibrium. It can be calculated if the equilibrium concentration of each reactant and product in a reaction at equilibrium is known.

Calculating the equilibrium constant

Consider the following generalised reaction which takes place in a closed container at a constant temperature :

A + B C + D

We know from "Factors affecting reaction rates" that the rate of the forward reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants. In other words, as the concentration of the reactants increases, so does the rate of the forward reaction. This can be shown using the following equation:

Rate of forward reaction [A][B]

or

Rate of forward reaction = k 1 [A][B]

Similarly, the rate of the reverse reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the products. This can be shown using the following equation:

Rate of reverse reaction [C][D]

or

Rate of reverse reaction = k 2 [C][D]

At equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. This can be shown using the following equation:

k 1 [ A ] [ B ] = k 2 [ C ] [ D ]

or

k 1 k 2 = [ C ] [ D ] [ A ] [ B ]

or, if the constants k 1 and k 2 are simplified to a single constant, the equation becomes:

k c = [ C ] [ D ] [ A ] [ B ]

A more general form of the equation for a reaction at chemical equilibrium is:

a A + b B c C + d D

where A and B are reactants, C and D are products and a, b, c, and d are the coefficients of the respective reactants and products. A more general formula for calculating the equilibrium constant is therefore:

K c = [ C ] c [ D ] d [ A ] a [ B ] b

It is important to note that if a reactant or a product in a chemical reaction is in either the liquid or solid phase, the concentration stays constant during the reaction. Therefore, these values can be left out of the equation to calculate K c . For example, in the following reaction:

C ( s ) + H 2 O ( g ) C O ( g ) + H 2 ( g )

K c = [ C O ] [ H 2 ] [ H 2 O ]
  1. The constant K c is affected by temperature and so, if the values of K c are being compared for different reactions, it is important that all the reactions have taken place at the same temperature.
  2. K c values do not have units. If you look at the equation, the units all cancel each other out.

The meaning of k c Values

The formula for K c has the concentration of the products in the numerator and the concentration of reactants in the denominator. So a high K c value means that the concentration of products is high and the reaction has a high yield. We can also say that the equilibrium lies far to the right. The opposite is true for a low K c value. A low K c value means that, at equilibrium, there are more reactants than products and therefore the yield is low. The equilibrium for the reaction lies far to the left.

Calculations made easy

When you are busy with calculations that involve the equilibrium constant, the following tips may help:

  1. Make sure that you always read the question carefully to be sure of what you are being asked to calculate. If the equilibrium constant is involved, make sure that the concentrations you use are the concentrations at equilibrium , and not the concentrations or quantities that are present at some other time in the reaction.
  2. When you are doing more complicated calculations, it sometimes helps to draw up a table like the one below and fill in the mole values that you know or those you can calculate. This will give you a clear picture of what is happening in the reaction and will make sure that you use the right values in your calculations.
    Reactant 1 Reactant 2 Product 1
    Start of reaction
    Used up
    Produced
    Equilibrium

Questions & Answers

is this a group chat
Nobuhle Reply
Hey can y'all define newton's 2nd law
mthebzification
If a resultant force act on an object...the object will accelerate in the direction of a resultant force,the acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
mosa
how do you calculate tension force
Bulumko
use the formula Fnet=ma if there is tension connecting two objects
Sboniso
to calculate Tension, usually calculate acceleration first Draw separate free body diagrams for each body. Apply Fnet = ma to calculate Tension
Kevin
how does temperature affect the equilibrium position
Blessing Reply
an increased temperature increases the average kinetic energy thus in turn increases the number of effective collisions........
Lwando
so...which reaction is favored between endothermic and exothermic .when temperature is increased..?
Blessing
exothermic reaction because energy is realised to the surroundings as heat and light energy ....graphical so much energy is realised as reactants to form product and because temperature is high rate of reaction is fast which means there is a successful collision
Code
an object will continue in a state of rest unless it is acted upon an unbalanced force
Junior Reply
Newton's Law 1
Code
First Newton's Law
Azola
Newton's first law
Surprise
newton first law
Thinavhuyo
Newton's first law
Blessing
when pressure is increased what happen to volume
Siphelo Reply
decreases
Code
care to explain?
Mpati
if pressure is applied to a pistol , the volume will decrease and particles will collide more frequently with the wall of a container .Each time they collide with the wall they exert a force on them .More collision means more force and the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
Because the volume has decreased , the particle will collide more frequently with the wall of a container and each time they collide with the wall of a container they exert a force on them.More collision means more force so the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
what is the difference between momentum and a change in momentum?
Chavonne Reply
How to name a branched molecule from right or left?
Vadin Reply
What's Free Fall
Senzo Reply
Free Fall means there is no acting force on that object.
Dingaletu
only gravitational force
Dingaletu
no external force acting on an object
Sphiwe
by only force of gravite
Sello
but gravitational force
Sphiwe
true
Lucky
a motion in which the only force acting is gravitational force
Blessing
and an object experiencing free fall is referred as a projectile
Blessing
Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
milani Reply
what is a free fall?
Beyanca Reply
is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Madman
Thats right
Beyanca
then Why ask when you Know the answer?
Madman
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Kenelioe Reply
what help you need
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
Madman
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
Madman
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani
hi guys i can explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry
Neil Reply
😂😂😂😂😂
Madman
yes
Lucky
yea
Kenelioe
guys 2mrrow I'm writing a test in chemistry I need help
Kenelioe
Hi guys. Can anyone please tell me what a functional group is?
Samukelo
a functional group depends on how many bonds there are between carbon atoms, if there are single bonds all the way it's an alkane, if there is a presence of at least one double bond it's a Alkene and if there's at least one triple bond it's an alkyne.
Olive
which quantity is measured in Watt?
Saara Reply
work
Absai
explain for me absai
Sboniso
is Power Not Work work is Measured In Joules it has Energy
Madman
thanks
Saara
Pleasure
Madman
power
Code
what's Newton's first law ?
Mpati
an object moves at constant velocity or stationery unless disturbed by uneven force
Lwando
what is galvanic cell ?
Oratile Reply
is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
Hope
how to understand alkane names
Sboniso Reply
suffix Ane in the IUPAC NAMING
Madman
elaborate a little more plz
Kenelioe
Alkanes are Saturated Meaning they don't have Multiple Bonds between Carbon Atoms and When you are Naming THEM THEY MUST END WITH (-ANE ) GET ME?
Madman
What are hydrocarbons
Phelo Reply
are organic Compounds with only Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms
Madman

Get the best Siyavula textbooks: gr... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 12 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11244/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula textbooks: grade 12 physical science' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask