# 13.2 Active circuit elements  (Page 6/7)

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The three terminals of the FET are called the source (S), drain (D) and gate (G), as shown in [link] . When the gate is not connected, a current of electrons can flow from source (S) to drain (D) easily along the channel. The source is, accordingly, the negative terminal of the transistor. The drain, where the electrons come out, is the positive terminal of the transistor. A few electrons will flow from the n-type channel into the p-type semiconductor of the gate when the device is manufactured. However, as these electrons are not removed (the gate is not connected), a depletion band is set up which prevents further flow into the gate.

In operation, the gate is connected to negative voltages relative to the source. This makes the p-n junction between gate and channel reverse-biased. Accordingly no current flows from the source into the gate. When the voltage of the gate is lowered (made more negative), the depletion band becomes wider. This enlarged depletion band takes up some of the space of the channel. So the lower the voltage of the gate (the more negative it is relative to the source), the larger the depletion band. The larger the depletion band, the narrower the channel. The narrower the channel, the harder it is for electrons to flow from source to drain.

The voltage of the gate is not the only factor affecting the current of electrons between the source and the drain. If the external circuit has a low resistance, electrons are able to leave the drain easily. If the external circuit has a high resistance, electrons leave the drain slowly. This creates a kind of `traffic jam' which slows the passage of further electrons. In this way, the voltage of the drain regulates itself, and is more or less independent of the current demanded from the drain.

Once these two factors have been taken into account, it is fair to say that the positive output voltage (the voltage of the drain relative to the source) is proportional to the negative input voltage (the voltage of the gate relative to the source).

For this reason, the field effect transistor is known as a voltage amplifier. This contrasts with the bipolar transistor which is a current amplifier.

## Field effect transistors

1. What are the two types of bipolar transistor? How does their construction differ?
2. What are the three connections to a bipolar transistor called?
3. Why are very few electrons able to flow from emitter to collector in an NPN transistor if the base is not connected?
4. Why do you think a bipolar transistor would not work if the base layer were too thick?
5. “The bipolar transistor is a current amplifier.” What does this statement mean?
6. Describe the structure of a FET.
7. Define what is meant by the source, drain and gate. During normal operation, what will the voltages of drain and gate be with respect to the source?
8. Describe how a depletion layer forms when the gate voltage is made more negative. What controls the width of the depletion layer?
9. “The field effect transistor is a voltage amplifier.” What does this statement mean?
10. The amplifier in a cheap radio will probably contain bipolar transistors. A computer contains many field effect transistors. Bipolar transistors are more rugged and less sensitive to interference than field effect transistors, which makes them more suitable for a simple radio. Why are FETs preferred for the computer?

what is an isomer?
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
liphelo
how is frequency directly proportional to kinetic energy max. and what is the relationship between the wavelength and the energy of a photon. eg if a photon with a greater wavelength and a photon with less frequency. what would be the energies. as in which one would be greater and why
relationship wave depend n enrgy greadt reflect of energy n the form of tex shape
thulare
what is Cell capacity?
what are hydrocarbons
compounds that are made up of hydrogen and carbon only
Patience
They are compounds that consist only with hydrogen &carbon elements.
Duncan
how do i calculate the work done on an object by a frictional force
@ Emmelda it's W = FxCos180 Where 180° is the angle between Frictional force and where the object is going, it's always 180° because it opposes the motion. Then F is the magnitude of the force and x is the displacement
Vukona
Ohm's law state that provide the temperature remains constant, that potential difference is directly proportional to the current flowing in the circuit
state ohms law
Booi
what does ohm's law state ?
ohm's law state that the potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current in the conductor at constant temperature
Nqobile
ohm'law in metalic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference provided the temparature
Nandise
what is the principle on which generator is based
electromagnetic induction
Sethu
Explain it😌
Nelisa
mechanical​ energy is used to rotate turbines inside the generator where a coil placed between two fixed magnets.as the coil rotates it cuts the magnetic flux due to the magnets. the magnetic flux will then induce an electric current into the coil which will be transmitted to the brushes
Ruva
may you Please instruct me on how to do Flemmings Right hand dynamo Rule
Siphe
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Ruva
hold out the right hand with the first finger, second finger and thumb at the right angle to each other.forefinger represents the direction of the line of Force, the thuMb points in the direction of Motion or applied force, then seCond finger points in the direction of the induced Current
Ruva
what is spectrum
It is a different combinations of frequency of light or any types of waves.
Duncan
Heii guys what's the topic? Am neww
In nuclear reactions, is it necessary that there must only be one element on the product side and a radioactive particle or you can have a product that are both radioactive particles?
conservative force is a force when the work done in moving the object between the two points that does not depend on the path way
what is conservative force?
It is a force , that does not have any external features affecting it
Duncan
what does the alternating current do
what is definition of hydrocarbon
it is the atoms that Contain of C atoms and H atoms only
Xolani
You mean molecules
Jc
yea 💯
Xolani
what's the definition of le chatelier?
Karabo
what is electromagnetic
Daniel
differentiate between DC motor and Ac generator
Kwanga
dc motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy while ac generator converts mechanical into electical
Ophola
DC has a Split-ring but then Ac has a slip-rings.
Joyous
what's the other name of galvanic cell?
Cwenga
galvanic cell is also called Voltanic cell
Bongiwe
is the chain whereby there is only Hydrogen and Carbon atoms only.
Hlonny
what is the difference between AC and DC moto
Mihle
Nomsa
AC motor consists of 2 slip rings and a DC motor has a single split ring commutator
Vukona
ac have slip rings n DC has split rings
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