# 13.2 Active circuit elements  (Page 6/7)

 Page 6 / 7

The three terminals of the FET are called the source (S), drain (D) and gate (G), as shown in [link] . When the gate is not connected, a current of electrons can flow from source (S) to drain (D) easily along the channel. The source is, accordingly, the negative terminal of the transistor. The drain, where the electrons come out, is the positive terminal of the transistor. A few electrons will flow from the n-type channel into the p-type semiconductor of the gate when the device is manufactured. However, as these electrons are not removed (the gate is not connected), a depletion band is set up which prevents further flow into the gate.

In operation, the gate is connected to negative voltages relative to the source. This makes the p-n junction between gate and channel reverse-biased. Accordingly no current flows from the source into the gate. When the voltage of the gate is lowered (made more negative), the depletion band becomes wider. This enlarged depletion band takes up some of the space of the channel. So the lower the voltage of the gate (the more negative it is relative to the source), the larger the depletion band. The larger the depletion band, the narrower the channel. The narrower the channel, the harder it is for electrons to flow from source to drain.

The voltage of the gate is not the only factor affecting the current of electrons between the source and the drain. If the external circuit has a low resistance, electrons are able to leave the drain easily. If the external circuit has a high resistance, electrons leave the drain slowly. This creates a kind of `traffic jam' which slows the passage of further electrons. In this way, the voltage of the drain regulates itself, and is more or less independent of the current demanded from the drain.

Once these two factors have been taken into account, it is fair to say that the positive output voltage (the voltage of the drain relative to the source) is proportional to the negative input voltage (the voltage of the gate relative to the source).

For this reason, the field effect transistor is known as a voltage amplifier. This contrasts with the bipolar transistor which is a current amplifier.

## Field effect transistors

1. What are the two types of bipolar transistor? How does their construction differ?
2. What are the three connections to a bipolar transistor called?
3. Why are very few electrons able to flow from emitter to collector in an NPN transistor if the base is not connected?
4. Why do you think a bipolar transistor would not work if the base layer were too thick?
5. “The bipolar transistor is a current amplifier.” What does this statement mean?
6. Describe the structure of a FET.
7. Define what is meant by the source, drain and gate. During normal operation, what will the voltages of drain and gate be with respect to the source?
8. Describe how a depletion layer forms when the gate voltage is made more negative. What controls the width of the depletion layer?
9. “The field effect transistor is a voltage amplifier.” What does this statement mean?
10. The amplifier in a cheap radio will probably contain bipolar transistors. A computer contains many field effect transistors. Bipolar transistors are more rugged and less sensitive to interference than field effect transistors, which makes them more suitable for a simple radio. Why are FETs preferred for the computer?

an athlete with a mass of 70kg runs at a velocity of 45km . determine the athlete's momentum
Is that a velocity or something else
msawenkosi
45km/h i guess
Texas
Change to m/s
Texas
45km/h = 12.5 m/s p=mv =70×12.5 =875 kg.m/s
Thato
what are the measures of the rates of reaction
Volume Concentration Temperature Pressure Surface Area
Thato
the principle of superposition of waves
what is work
is this a group chat
Hey can y'all define newton's 2nd law
mthebzification
If a resultant force act on an object...the object will accelerate in the direction of a resultant force,the acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
mosa
how do you calculate tension force
Bulumko
use the formula Fnet=ma if there is tension connecting two objects
Sboniso
to calculate Tension, usually calculate acceleration first Draw separate free body diagrams for each body. Apply Fnet = ma to calculate Tension
Kevin
Hi people
Paul
how does temperature affect the equilibrium position
an increased temperature increases the average kinetic energy thus in turn increases the number of effective collisions........
Lwando
so...which reaction is favored between endothermic and exothermic .when temperature is increased..?
Blessing
exothermic reaction because energy is realised to the surroundings as heat and light energy ....graphical so much energy is realised as reactants to form product and because temperature is high rate of reaction is fast which means there is a successful collision
Code
INTEMENDO - INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS ENDOTHERMIC DETEMEXO - DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS EXOTHERMIC
Thato
an object will continue in a state of rest unless it is acted upon an unbalanced force
Newton's Law 1
Code
First Newton's Law
Azola
Newton's first law
Surprise
newton first law
Thinavhuyo
Newton's first law
Blessing
when pressure is increased what happen to volume
decreases
Code
care to explain?
Mpati
if pressure is applied to a pistol , the volume will decrease and particles will collide more frequently with the wall of a container .Each time they collide with the wall they exert a force on them .More collision means more force and the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
Because the volume has decreased , the particle will collide more frequently with the wall of a container and each time they collide with the wall of a container they exert a force on them.More collision means more force so the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
what is the difference between momentum and a change in momentum?
How to name a branched molecule from right or left?
What's Free Fall
Free Fall means there is no acting force on that object.
Dingaletu
only gravitational force
Dingaletu
no external force acting on an object
Sphiwe
by only force of gravite
Sello
but gravitational force
Sphiwe
true
Lucky
a motion in which the only force acting is gravitational force
Blessing
and an object experiencing free fall is referred as a projectile
Blessing
Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
what is a free fall?
is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Thats right
Beyanca
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani
hi guys i can explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry
😂😂😂😂😂
yes
Lucky
yea
Kenelioe
guys 2mrrow I'm writing a test in chemistry I need help
Kenelioe
Hi guys. Can anyone please tell me what a functional group is?
Samukelo
a functional group depends on how many bonds there are between carbon atoms, if there are single bonds all the way it's an alkane, if there is a presence of at least one double bond it's a Alkene and if there's at least one triple bond it's an alkyne.
Olive