13.1 Principles of digital electronics

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The principles of digital electronics

The circuits and components we have discussed are very useful. You can build a radio or television with them. You can make a telephone. Even if that was all there was to electronics, it would still be very useful. However, the great breakthrough in the last fifty years or so has been in digital electronics. This is the subject which gave us the computer. The computer has revolutionized the way business, engineering and science are done. Small computers programmed to do a specific job (called microprocessors) are now used in almost every electronic machine from cars to washing machines. Computers have also changed the way we communicate. We used to have telegraph or telephone wires passing up and down a country — each one carrying one telephone call or signal. We now have optic fibres each capable of carrying tens of thousands of telephone calls using digital signals.

So, what is a digital signal? Look at [link] . A normal signal, called an analogue signal, carries a smooth wave. At any time, the voltage of the signal could take any value. It could be 2,00 V or 3,53 V or anything else. A digital signal can only take certain voltages. The simplest case is shown in the figure — the voltage takes one of two values. It is either high , or it is low . It never has any other value.

These two special voltages are given symbols. The low voltage level is written 0, while the high voltage level is written as 1. When you send a digital signal, you set the voltage you want (0 or 1), then keep this fixed for a fixed amount of time (for example 0.01 $\mu$ s), then you send the next 0 or 1. The digital signal in [link] could be written 01100101.

Why are digital signals so good?

1. Using a computer, any information can be turned into a pattern of 0s and 1s. Pictures, recorded music, text and motion pictures can all be turned into a string of 0s and 1s and transmitted or stored in the same way. The computer receiving the signal at the other end converts it back again. A Compact Disc (CD) for example, can store music or text or pictures, and all can be read using a computer.
2. The 0 and the 1 look very different. You can immediately tell if a 0 or a 1 is being sent. Even if there is interference, you can still tell whether the sender sent a 0 or a 1. This means that fewer mistakes are made when reading a digital signal. This is why the best music recording technologies, and the most modern cameras, for example, all use digital technology.
3. Using the 0s and 1s you can count, and do all kinds of mathematics. This will be explained in more detail in the next section.

The simplest digital circuits are called logic gates . Each logic gate makes a decision based on the information it receives. Different logic gates are set up to make the decisions in different ways. Each logic gate will be made of many microscopic transistors connected together within a thin wafer of silicon. This tiny circuit is called an Integrated Circuit or I.C. - all the parts are in one place (integrated) on the silicon wafer.

an athlete with a mass of 70kg runs at a velocity of 45km . determine the athlete's momentum
Is that a velocity or something else
msawenkosi
45km/h i guess
Texas
Change to m/s
Texas
45km/h = 12.5 m/s p=mv =70×12.5 =875 kg.m/s
Thato
what are the measures of the rates of reaction
Volume Concentration Temperature Pressure Surface Area
Thato
the principle of superposition of waves
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is this a group chat
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mthebzification
If a resultant force act on an object...the object will accelerate in the direction of a resultant force,the acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
mosa
how do you calculate tension force
Bulumko
use the formula Fnet=ma if there is tension connecting two objects
Sboniso
to calculate Tension, usually calculate acceleration first Draw separate free body diagrams for each body. Apply Fnet = ma to calculate Tension
Kevin
Hi people
Paul
how does temperature affect the equilibrium position
an increased temperature increases the average kinetic energy thus in turn increases the number of effective collisions........
Lwando
so...which reaction is favored between endothermic and exothermic .when temperature is increased..?
Blessing
exothermic reaction because energy is realised to the surroundings as heat and light energy ....graphical so much energy is realised as reactants to form product and because temperature is high rate of reaction is fast which means there is a successful collision
Code
INTEMENDO - INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS ENDOTHERMIC DETEMEXO - DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS EXOTHERMIC
Thato
an object will continue in a state of rest unless it is acted upon an unbalanced force
Newton's Law 1
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First Newton's Law
Azola
Newton's first law
Surprise
newton first law
Thinavhuyo
Newton's first law
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when pressure is increased what happen to volume
decreases
Code
care to explain?
Mpati
if pressure is applied to a pistol , the volume will decrease and particles will collide more frequently with the wall of a container .Each time they collide with the wall they exert a force on them .More collision means more force and the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
Because the volume has decreased , the particle will collide more frequently with the wall of a container and each time they collide with the wall of a container they exert a force on them.More collision means more force so the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
what is the difference between momentum and a change in momentum?
How to name a branched molecule from right or left?
What's Free Fall
Free Fall means there is no acting force on that object.
Dingaletu
only gravitational force
Dingaletu
no external force acting on an object
Sphiwe
by only force of gravite
Sello
but gravitational force
Sphiwe
true
Lucky
a motion in which the only force acting is gravitational force
Blessing
and an object experiencing free fall is referred as a projectile
Blessing
Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
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is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Thats right
Beyanca
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani
hi guys i can explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry
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yes
Lucky
yea
Kenelioe
guys 2mrrow I'm writing a test in chemistry I need help
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Hi guys. Can anyone please tell me what a functional group is?
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a functional group depends on how many bonds there are between carbon atoms, if there are single bonds all the way it's an alkane, if there is a presence of at least one double bond it's a Alkene and if there's at least one triple bond it's an alkyne.
Olive