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Earth's atmosphere

The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases that surround the planet, and which are held there by the Earth's gravity. The atmosphere contains roughly 78.1% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of other gases, and a variable amount of water vapour. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.

The structure of the atmosphere

The earth's atmosphere is divided into different layers, each with its own particular characteristics ( [link] ).

A generalised diagram showing the structure of the atmosphere and the changing temperatures up to a height of 110 km

The troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest level in the atmosphere, and it is the part in which we live. The troposphere varies in thickness, and extends from the ground to a height of about 7km at the poles and about 18km at the equator. An important characteristic of the troposphere is that its temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. In other words, as you climb higher, it will get colder. You will have noticed this if you have climbed a mountain, or if you have moved from a city at a high altitude to one which is lower; the average temperature is often lower where the altitude is higher. This is because the troposphere is heated from the 'bottom up'. In other words, places that are closer to the Earth's surface will be warmer than those at higher altitudes. The heating of the atmosphere will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.

The word troposphere comes from the Greek tropos , meaning turning or mixing . The troposphere is the most turbulent (or agitated) part of the atmosphere and is the part where our weather takes place. Weather is the state of the air at a particular place and time e.g. if it is warm or cold, wet or dry, and how cloudy or windy it is. Generally, jet aircraft fly just above the troposphere to avoid all this turbulence.

The stratosphere

Above the troposphere is another layer called the stratosphere , where most long distance aircraft fly. The stratosphere extends from altitudes of 10 to 50km. If you have ever been in an aeroplane and have looked out the window once you are well into the flight, you will have noticed that you are actually flying above the level of the clouds. As we have already mentioned, clouds and weather occur in the troposphere, whereas the stratosphere has very stable atmospheric conditions and very little turbulence. It is easy to understand why aircraft choose to fly here!

The stratosphere is different from the troposphere because its temperature increases as altitude increases. This is because the stratosphere absorbs solar radiation directly, meaning that the upper layers closer to the sun will be warmer. The upper layers of the stratosphere are also warmer because of the presence of the ozone layer . Ozone (O 3 ) is formed when solar radiation splits an oxygen molecule (O 2 ) into two atoms of oxygen. Each individual atom is then able to combine with an oxygen molecule to form ozone. The two reactions are shown below:

Questions & Answers

what is the formula for calculating tension
Kagiso Reply
You can use simultaneous equations or T=mg+ma
sibahle
- Which formula can you use if you want to calculate acceleration?
Pretty
to calculate acceleration you use formula Vf -Vi divided by the time (t)
sholan
What is the formula of calculating tension
sibahle Reply
I don't think there's a formula u just have to use all information in that type of situation
Gwebzi
can a mixture of atoms make a molecule
Keamogetse Reply
define the term "resultant"
Austin Reply
the sum of all the forces acting on an object
Think
carring out an investigation of the relationship of acceleration and net force with mass kept constant
Ronald
how to calculate coefficient of kinetic force
Bhereza Reply
kinetic friction × Normal force
Murunwa
how to get a valency electron
Really Reply
how to calculate acceleration due to gravity
Mpho Reply
how to calculate inertia and it's definition
sibahle Reply
how to draw a box of tall the force that act on the box mass is 5 .00 and lies a ramp with 30°
Thando Reply
how to determine Gravitational acceleration
Raman Reply
what is a force
Edith Reply
A force is a pull or push action that affects the shape, motion and direction of an object
Chauke
the different types of friction forces
Bhereza
different types of frictional forces are static frictional force(the object is stationery)and kinetic frictional force(the object is moving)
Raymond
static
Dineo
what is a vector
Nosihle Reply
a vector is a physical quantity that have both magnitude and direction
Edith
how to calculate the magnitude and direction if, P=500N,10°,Q=200N,30°,R=300N,60°
Asavela Reply
Describe relationship between the net force exerted on an object and acceleration of the object in words
Motshidisi Reply
Newton's second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force exerted on the objectdivided by the object's mass. The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction of thenet force.
Sebastian
what is close vector diagram
Lebogang
can you describe the relationship between the netf exterted on an object and A of the object for me plz
Lebogang
the are directly proportional When one increase the other will roo
Gwebzi
too
Gwebzi
and the mass is inversely proportional
Murunwa
what is an intermolecular
Senzo Reply
is the forces that act in the molecules
Lebogang

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11241/1.2
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