# 0.4 Chemical bonding  (Page 8/9)

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Write the chemical formula for copper (II) chloride.

1. A molecule of copper (II) chloride contains the elements copper and chlorine .

2. The valency of copper is 2, while the valency of chlorine is 1. In a molecule of copper (II) chloride, two atoms of chlorine will combine with one atom of copper.

3. The chemical formula for copper (II) chloride is therefore:

$\mathrm{CuCl}{}_{2}$

## The formulae of ionic compounds

The overall charge of an ionic compound will always be zero and so the negative and positive charge must be the same size. We can use this information to work out what the chemical formula of an ionic compound is if we know the charge on the individual ions. In the case of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ for example, the charge on the sodium is $+1$ and the charge on the chlorine is $-1$ . The charges balance ( $+1-1=0$ ) and therefore the ionic compound is neutral. In $\mathrm{MgO}$ , magnesium has a charge of $+2$ and oxygen has a charge of $-2$ . Again, the charges balance and the compound is neutral. Positive ions are called cations and negative ions are called anions .

Some ions are made up of groups of atoms, and these are called compound ions . It is a good idea to learn the compound ions that are shown in [link]

 Name of compound ion formula Name of compound ion formula Carbonate $\mathrm{CO}{}_{3}^{2-}$ Nitrate ${\mathrm{NO}}_{2}^{-}$ Sulphate ${\mathrm{SO}}_{4}^{2-}$ Hydrogen sulphite ${\mathrm{HSO}}_{3}^{-}$ Hydroxide ${\mathrm{OH}}^{-}$ Hydrogen sulphate ${\mathrm{HSO}}_{4}^{-}$ Ammonium ${\mathrm{NH}}_{4}^{+}$ Dihydrogen phosphate ${\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{-}$ Nitrate ${\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$ Hypochlorite ${\mathrm{ClO}}^{-}$ Hydrogen carbonate ${\mathrm{HCO}}_{3}^{-}$ Acetate (ethanoate) ${\mathrm{CH}}_{3}{\mathrm{COO}}^{-}$ Phosphate ${\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{3-}$ Oxalate ${\mathrm{C}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{2-}$ Chlorate ${\mathrm{ClO}}_{3}^{-}$ Oxide ${\mathrm{O}}^{2-}$ Cyanide ${\mathrm{CN}}^{-}$ Peroxide ${\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{2-}$ Chromate ${\mathrm{CrO}}_{4}^{2-}$ Sulphide ${\mathrm{S}}^{2-}$ Permanganate ${\mathrm{MnO}}_{4}^{-}$ Sulphite ${\mathrm{SO}}_{3}^{2-}$ Thiosulphate ${\mathrm{S}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}$ Manganate ${\mathrm{MnO}}_{4}^{2-}$ Phosphide ${\mathrm{P}}^{3-}$ Hydrogen phosphate ${\mathrm{HPO}}_{4}^{3-}$

In the case of ionic compounds, the valency of an ion is the same as its charge (Note: valency is always expressed as a positive number e.g. valency of the chloride ion is 1 and not -1). Since an ionic compound is always neutral , the positive charges in the compound must balance out the negative. The following are some examples:

Write the chemical formula for potassium iodide.

1. Potassium iodide contains potassium and iodide ions.

2. Potassium iodide contains the ions $\mathrm{K}{}^{+}$ ( $\mathrm{valency}=1$ ; $\mathrm{charge}=+1$ ) and $\mathrm{I}{}^{-}$ ( $\mathrm{valency}=1$ ; $\mathrm{charge}=-1$ ). In order to balance the charge in a single molecule, one atom of potassium will be needed for every one atom of iodine.

3. The chemical formula for potassium iodide is therefore:

$\mathrm{KI}$

Write the chemical formula for sodium sulphate.

1. Sodium sulphate contains sodium ions and sulphate ions.

2. $\mathrm{Na}{}^{+}$ (valency = 1; charge = +1) and $\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}^{2-}$ ( $\mathrm{valency}=2$ ; $\mathrm{charge}=-2$ ).

3. Two sodium ions will be needed to balance the charge of the sulphate ion. The chemical formula for sodium sulphate is therefore:

$\mathrm{Na}{}_{2}\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}$

Write the chemical formula for calcium hydroxide.

1. Calcium hydroxide contains calcium ions and hydroxide ions.

2. Calcium hydroxide contains the ions ${\mathrm{Ca}}^{2+}$ ( $\mathrm{charge}=+2$ ) and $\mathrm{OH}{}^{-}$ ( $\mathrm{charge}=-1$ ). In order to balance the charge in a single molecule, two hydroxide ions will be needed for every ion of calcium.

3. The chemical formula for calcium hydroxide is therefore:

$\mathrm{Ca\left(OH\right)}{}_{2}$

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nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
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Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP