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Molar volumes of gases

Molar volume of gases
1 mole of gas occupies 22,4 dm 3 at S.T.P.

This applies to any gas that is at standard temperature and pressure. In grade 11 you will learn more about this and the gas laws.

Molar concentrations of liquids

A typical solution is made by dissolving some solid substance in a liquid. The amount of substance that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid is known as the concentration of the liquid. Mathematically, concentration (C) is defined as moles of solute (n) per unit volume (V) of solution.

C = n V

For this equation, the units for volume are dm 3 . Therefore, the unit of concentration is mol · dm - 3 . When concentration is expressed in mol · dm - 3 it is known as the molarity (M) of the solution. Molarity is the most common expression for concentration.

Do not confuse molarity (M) with molar mass (M). Look carefully at the question in which the M appears to determine whether it is concentration or molar mass.

Concentration is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid. It is measured in mol · dm - 3 . Another term that is used for concentration is molarity (M)

If 3,5 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved in 2,5 dm 3 of water, what is the concentration of the solution in mol · dm - 3 ?

  1. n = m M = 3 , 5 40 = 0 , 0875 mol
  2. C = n V = 0 , 0875 2 , 5 = 0 , 035

    The concentration of the solution is 0,035 mol · dm - 3 or 0,035 M

You have a 1 dm 3 container in which to prepare a solution of potassium permanganate ( KMnO 4 ). What mass of KMnO 4 is needed to make a solution with a concentration of 0,2 M ?

  1. C = n V


    n = C × V = 0 , 2 × 1 = 0 , 2 mol
  2. m = n × M = 0 , 2 × 158 , 04 = 31 , 61 g

    The mass of KMnO 4 that is needed is 31,61 g .

How much sodium chloride (in g) will one need to prepare 500 cm 3 of solution with a concentration of 0,01 M ?

  1. V = 500 1 000 = 0 , 5 dm 3
  2. n = C × V = 0 , 01 × 0 , 5 = 0 , 005 mol
  3. m = n × M = 0 , 005 × 58 , 45 = 0 , 29 g

    The mass of sodium chloride needed is 0,29 g

Molarity and the concentration of solutions

  1. 5,95 g of potassium bromide was dissolved in 400 cm 3 of water. Calculate its molarity.
  2. 100 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved in 450 cm 3 of water.
    1. How many moles of NaCl are present in solution?
    2. What is the volume of water (in dm 3 )?
    3. Calculate the concentration of the solution.
    4. What mass of sodium chloride would need to be added for the concentration to become 5,7 mol · dm - 3 ?
  3. What is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 80 g of sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) in 500 cm 3 of water?
  4. What mass (g) of hydrogen chloride ( HCl ) is needed to make up 1000 cm 3 of a solution of concentration 1 mol · dm - 3 ?
  5. How many moles of H 2 SO 4 are there in 250 cm 3 of a 0,8 M sulphuric acid solution? What mass of acid is in this solution?

Stoichiometric calculations

Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. It is also the numerical relationship between reactants and products. In representing chemical change showed how to write balanced chemical equations. By knowing the ratios of substances in a reaction, it is possible to use stoichiometry to calculate the amount of either reactants or products that are involved in the reaction. The examples shown below will make this concept clearer.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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