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  1. Pour limewater into one of the test tubes and seal with a rubber stopper.
  2. Carefully pour a small amount of hydrochloric acid into the remaining test tube.
  3. Add a small amount of sodium carbonate to the acid and seal the test tube with the rubber stopper.
  4. Connect the two test tubes with a delivery tube.
  5. Observe what happens to the colour of the limewater.
  6. Repeat the above steps, this time using sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate.


The clear lime water turns milky meaning that carbon dioxide has been produced.

When an acid reacts with a carbonate a salt, carbon dioxide and water are formed. Look at the following examples:

  • Nitric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide and water. 2 HNO 3 + Na 2 CO 3 2 NaNO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O
  • Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium sulfate, carbon dioxide and water. H 2 SO 4 + CaCO 3 CaSO 4 + CO 2 + H 2 O
  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. 2 HCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O

Acids and bases

  1. The compound NaHCO 3 is commonly known as baking soda. A recipe requires 1.6 g of baking soda, mixed with other ingredients, to bake a cake.
    1. Calculate the number of moles of NaHCO 3 used to bake the cake.
    2. How many atoms of oxygen are there in the 1.6 g of baking soda? During the baking process, baking soda reacts with an acid to produce carbon dioxide and water, as shown by the reaction equation below: HCO 3 - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l )
    3. Identify the reactant which acts as the Bronsted-Lowry base in this reaction. Give a reason for your answer.
    4. Use the above equation to explain why the cake rises during this baking process.
    (DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
  2. Label the acid-base conjugate pairs in the following equation: HCO 3 - + H 2 O CO 3 2 - + H 3 O +
  3. A certain antacid tablet contains 22.0 g of baking soda (NaHCO 3 ). It is used to neutralise the excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The balanced equation for the reaction is: NaHCO 3 + HCl NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 The hydrochloric acid in the stomach has a concentration of 1.0 mol.dm - 3 . Calculate the volume of the hydrochloric acid that can be neutralised by the antacid tablet. (DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
  4. A learner is asked to prepare a standard solution of the weak acid, oxalic acid (COOH) 2 2H 2 O for use in a titration. The volume of the solution must be 500 cm 3 and the concentration 0.2 mol.dm - 3 .
    1. Calculate the mass of oxalic acid which the learner has to dissolve to make up the required standard solution. The leaner titrates this 0.2 mol.dm - 3 oxalic acid solution against a solution of sodium hydroxide. He finds that 40 cm 3 of the oxalic acid solution exactly neutralises 35 cm 3 of the sodium hydroxide solution.
    2. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
  5. A learner finds some sulfuric acid solution in a bottle labelled 'dilute sulfuric acid'. He wants to determine the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution. To do this, he decides to titrate the sulfuric acid against a standard potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution.
    1. What is a standard solution?
    2. Calculate the mass of KOH which he must use to make 300 cm 3 of a 0.2 mol.dm - 3 KOH solution.
    3. Calculate the pH of the 0.2 mol.dm - 3 KOH solution (assume standard temperature).
    4. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between H 2 SO 4 and KOH.
    5. During the titration he finds that 15 cm 3 of the KOH solution neutralises 20 cm 3 of the H 2 SO 4 solution. Calculate the concentration of the H 2 SO 4 solution.
    (IEB Paper 2, 2003)

Questions & Answers

molecule lewis structure
diesabel Reply
Can you please explain the right hand rule for solenoid
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Nyiko Reply
total Mr of the element ÷total Mr of the compound all ×100
how to calculate distance between two charges
Kefentse Reply
what is a limiting reagent?
Sizwe Reply
it is a reactant that gets used up completely after a reaction
Two charges of + 3nC and -5 nC are separated by a distance of 40cm. what is the electrostatic force between the two charges
Lethabo Reply
how do you determine electron configuration?
Karabo Reply
A chemist at a water purification plant adds 700g of Al2(SO4)3 to a sample of water calculate the maximum mass of Al(OH)3 that can be produced from this mass of Al2(SO4)3
Akhonke Reply
how to calculate the mass of a sphere in ekectrostatics
Mpilo Reply
although the shape of molecules of H2S and H2O is similar,there is a remarkable difference in their boiling point explain the statement
Kgopotso Reply
What is coulomb's law
Boitumelo Reply
The amount of force between two stationary, electrically charged particles.
Coulombs law is the magnitude of electrostatic force that one charge exerts on the other and is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the squared distance between them
how to identify the type of intermolecular forces in pairs of molecules
Okheka Reply
How many gramd of NO2 are produced from 30g of NO
what is orbitals?
Juvilyn Reply
a specification of the energy and probability density of an electron at any point in an atom or molecule
How to calculate resistance in parallel circuit
Sfundo Reply
what's the formulae for calculating gravity

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11241/1.2
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