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  1. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride (the salt) and water. Sodium chloride is made up of Na + cations from the base (NaOH) and Cl - anions from the acid (HCl). HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl
  2. Hydrogen bromide reacts with potassium hydroxide to form potassium bromide (the salt) and water. Potassium bromide is made up of K + cations from the base (KOH) and Br - anions from the acid (HBr). HBr + KOH H 2 O + KBr
  3. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydrocarbonate to form sodium chloride (the salt) and hydrogen carbonate. Sodium chloride is made up of Na + cations from the base (NaHCO 3 ) and Cl - anions from the acid (HCl). HCl + NaHCO 3 H 2 CO 3 + NaCl

You should notice that in the first two examples, the base contained OH - ions, and therefore the products were a salt and water . NaCl (table salt) and KBr are both salts. In the third example, NaHCO 3 also acts as a base, despite not having OH - ions. A salt is still formed as one of the products, but no water is produced.

It is important to realise how important these neutralisation reactions are. Below are some examples:

  • Domestic uses Calcium oxide (CaO) is put on soil that is too acid. Powdered limestone (CaCO 3 ) can also be used but its action is much slower and less effective. These substances can also be used on a larger scale in farming and also in rivers.
  • Biological uses Acids in the stomach (e.g. hydrochloric acid) play an important role in helping to digest food. However, when a person has a stomach ulcer, or when there is too much acid in the stomach, these acids can cause a lot of pain. Antacids are taken to neutralise the acids so that they don't burn as much. Antacids are bases which neutralise the acid. Examples of antacids are aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide ('milk of magnesia') and sodium bicarbonate ('bicarbonate of soda'). Antacids can also be used to relieve heartburn.
  • Industrial uses Alkaline calcium hydroxide (limewater) can be used to absorb harmful SO 2 gas that is released from power stations and from the burning of fossil fuels.

Interesting fact

Bee stings are acidic and have a pH between 5 and 5.5. They can be soothed by using substances such as calomine lotion, which is a mild alkali based on zinc oxide. Bicarbonate of soda can also be used. Both alkalis help to neutralise the acidic bee sting and relieve some of the itchiness!
Acid-base titrations

The neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base can be very useful. If an acidic solution of known concentration (a standard solution) is added to an alkaline solution until the solution is exactly neutralised (i.e. it has neither acidic nor basic properties), it is possible to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown solution. It is possible to do this because, at the exact point where the solution is neutralised, chemically equivalent amounts of acid and base have reacted with each other. This type of calculation is called volumetric analysis . The process where an acid solution and a basic solution are added to each other for this purpose, is called a titration , and the point of neutralisation is called the end point of the reaction. So how exactly can a titration be carried out to determine an unknown concentration? Look at the following steps to help you to understand the process.

Step 1:

A measured volume of the solution with unknown concentration is put into a flask.

Step 2:

A suitable indicator is added to this solution (bromothymol blue and phenolpthalein are common indicators).

Step 3:

A volume of the standard solution is put into a burette (a measuring device) and is slowly added to the solution in the flask, drop by drop.

Step 4:

At some point, adding one more drop will change the colour of the unknown solution. For example, if the solution is basic and bromothymol blue is being used as the indicator in the titration, the bromothymol blue would originally have coloured the solution blue. At the end point of the reaction, adding one more drop of acid will change the colour of the basic solution from blue to yellow. Yellow shows that the solution is now acidic.

Step 5:

Record the volume of standard solution that has been added up to this point.

Step 6:

Use the information you have gathered to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown solution. A worked example is shown below.

Questions & Answers

I mean what is a resulted vector
Njabulo Reply
is the vector quantity that has the same effects as 2 or more vectors
junior
It is the combination of two or more vectors
Sisipo
is the vector sum of two or more vectors
Precious
thanks
Njabulo
what are compartments of vectors
Dineo
hey how do I calculate the unknown force using algebraic calculation
Lizzy Reply
I also need to know that help me please
Debra
help me too n calculating it
Alfred
I need to know more about components of vectors
Dineo
help me too, i dont know to
junior
what is a vector
Njabulo
what is covalent bonding
Jeanine Reply
is the sharing of atoms between two or more substances
Andiswa
Draw a 100 N force vector acting towards the right
Welcome Reply
Two forces act on an object. The first is a horizontal 50N force. The second is a 40N force acting at an angle to the horizontal 1.1 use a graphical method drawn to 1mm:1N to find the resultan if 40N force is inclined at: 1.1 30° to the horizontal 1.2 60° to the horizontal
Maya
A gardener mounts a pot plant on the wall using a metal ring and chain. The ring exerts a horizontal force of 20 N on the pot plant and the weight of the pot plant is 30 N Determine the magnitude of the tension in the chain by calculation and construction
Amelia Reply
what is a head to tail methods?
Karabo Reply
thats simply involves drawing the first vector and then joining the second vector to its tail then join the head of the firstvector
Andiswa
what is magnitude
Mfundo Reply
Magnitude is size
Thabiso
magnitude is the maximum or greater extent of size and the direction of an object, it describes the direction of vectors and scalars.
Siphosethu
So I got a question that follows: two forces of 60N and 80N respectively act simultaneously at a point, sketch and determine their resultant by using the tail to head method
Mbuli Reply
How do we calculate a resultant in a vector
Thembi Reply
Where are the answers to the questions on this page
Dzuneko Reply
What are the name of x ✖ and y?
Dzuneko
Hello
Jeanine
hi
Alfred
How do I determine the magnitude of the resultant by using tail to tail, head to tail, pythogolas theorem of fx=5N and fy=7N
mamokete Reply
Fr=Fx+Fy ~ 5N+7N=12N This applies for tail-tail and head-tail.Theorem of Pythagoras you square them(check the format)
Sphiwe
5^2+7^2
Anele
how chemicals change
Laymark Reply
what does the word extension mean or a synonym
Snothile Reply
it means maybe to Extend something
Debra
how how many forces act on point X
Bongi Reply
Where is point X?
Sphiwe
OK just on that sum
Bongi
I am doing grade 11 as well
Phophi Reply
How do I calculate magnitude tail to tail vactor
mamokete
is just like head to tail
Moses

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11241/1.2
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