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Based on such considerations, the International Standards Organization recommends using seven base quantities, which form the International System of Quantities (ISQ). These are the base quantities used to define the SI base units. [link] lists these seven ISQ base quantities and the corresponding SI base units.

Isq base quantities and their si units
ISQ Base Quantity SI Base Unit
Length meter (m)
Mass kilogram (kg)
Time second (s)
Electrical current ampere (A)
Thermodynamic temperature kelvin (K)
Amount of substance mole (mol)
Luminous intensity candela (cd)

You are probably already familiar with some derived quantities that can be formed from the base quantities in [link] . For example, the geometric concept of area is always calculated as the product of two lengths. Thus, area is a derived quantity that can be expressed in terms of SI base units using square meters ( m × m = m 2 ) . Similarly, volume is a derived quantity that can be expressed in cubic meters ( m 3 ) . Speed is length per time; so in terms of SI base units, we could measure it in meters per second (m/s). Volume mass density (or just density) is mass per volume, which is expressed in terms of SI base units such as kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m 3 ). Angles can also be thought of as derived quantities because they can be defined as the ratio of the arc length subtended by two radii of a circle to the radius of the circle. This is how the radian is defined. Depending on your background and interests, you may be able to come up with other derived quantities, such as the mass flow rate (kg/s) or volume flow rate (m 3 /s) of a fluid, electric charge ( A · s ) , mass flux density [kg/ ( m 2 · s)], and so on. We will see many more examples throughout this text. For now, the point is that every physical quantity can be derived from the seven base quantities in [link] , and the units of every physical quantity can be derived from the seven SI base units.

For the most part, we use SI units in this text. Non-SI units are used in a few applications in which they are in very common use, such as the measurement of temperature in degrees Celsius ( ° C ) , the measurement of fluid volume in liters (L), and the measurement of energies of elementary particles in electron-volts (eV). Whenever non-SI units are discussed, they are tied to SI units through conversions. For example, 1 L is 10 −3 m 3 .

Check out a comprehensive source of information on SI units at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty.

Units of time, length, and mass: the second, meter, and kilogram

The initial chapters in this textbook are concerned with mechanics, fluids, and waves. In these subjects all pertinent physical quantities can be expressed in terms of the base units of length, mass, and time. Therefore, we now turn to a discussion of these three base units, leaving discussion of the others until they are needed later.

The second

The SI unit for time, the second    (abbreviated s), has a long history. For many years it was defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. More recently, a new standard was adopted to gain greater accuracy and to define the second in terms of a nonvarying or constant physical phenomenon (because the solar day is getting longer as a result of the very gradual slowing of Earth’s rotation). Cesium atoms can be made to vibrate in a very steady way, and these vibrations can be readily observed and counted. In 1967, the second was redefined as the time required for 9,192,631,770 of these vibrations to occur ( [link] ). Note that this may seem like more precision than you would ever need, but it isn’t—GPSs rely on the precision of atomic clocks to be able to give you turn-by-turn directions on the surface of Earth, far from the satellites broadcasting their location.

Questions & Answers

principle of superposition?
Naveen Reply
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Kidus
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
Daniel Reply
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
Ashok
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
Goodness Reply
what is the formula for pressure?
Goodness Reply
force/area
Kidus
force is newtom
Kidus
and area is meter squared
Kidus
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
Kidus
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
Kidus
who is Newton?
John Reply
scientist
Jeevan
a scientist
Peter
that discovered law of motion
Peter
ok
John
but who is Isaac newton?
John
a postmodernist would say that he did not discover them, he made them up and they're not actually a reality in itself, but a mere construct by which we decided to observe the word around us
elo
how?
Qhoshe
Besides his work on universal gravitation (gravity), Newton developed the 3 laws of motion which form the basic principles of modern physics. His discovery of calculus led the way to more powerful methods of solving mathematical problems. His work in optics included the study of white light and
Daniel
and the color spectrum
Daniel
what is a scalar quantity
Peter Reply
scalar: are quantity have numerical value
muslim
is that a better way in defining scalar quantity
Peter
thanks
muslim
quantity that has magnitude but no direction
Peter
upward force and downward force lift
adegboye Reply
upward force and downward force on lift
adegboye
hi
Etini
hi
elo
hy
Xander
Hello
Jux_dob
hi
Peter
Helo
Tobi
Yes what about it?
Daniel
what's the answer? I can't get it
Rachel Reply
what is the question again?
Sallieu
What's this conversation?
Zareen
what is catenation? and give examples
sununu
How many kilometres in 1 mile
Nessy
1.609km in 1mile
Faqir
what's the si unit of impulse
Iguh Reply
The Newton second (N•s)
Ethan
what is the s. I unit of current
Roland Reply
Amphere(A)
imam
thanks man
Roland
u r welcome
imam
the velocity of a boat related to water is 3i+4j and that of water related to earth is i-3j. what is the velocity of the boat relative to earth.If unit vector i and j represent 1km/hour east and north respectively
Pallavi Reply
what is head to tail rule?
kinza Reply
Explain Head to tail rule?
kinza
what is the guess theorem
Monu Reply
viva question and answer on practical youngs modulus by streching
Akash Reply
send me vvi que
rupesh
a car can cover a distance of 522km on 36 Liter's of petrol, how far can it travel on 14 liter of petrol.
Isaac
yoo the ans is 193
Joseph
whats a two dimensional force
Jimoh Reply
what are two dimensional force?
Ahmad

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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