# 1.2 Units and standards  (Page 2/17)

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Based on such considerations, the International Standards Organization recommends using seven base quantities, which form the International System of Quantities (ISQ). These are the base quantities used to define the SI base units. [link] lists these seven ISQ base quantities and the corresponding SI base units.

Isq base quantities and their si units
ISQ Base Quantity SI Base Unit
Length meter (m)
Mass kilogram (kg)
Time second (s)
Electrical current ampere (A)
Thermodynamic temperature kelvin (K)
Amount of substance mole (mol)
Luminous intensity candela (cd)

You are probably already familiar with some derived quantities that can be formed from the base quantities in [link] . For example, the geometric concept of area is always calculated as the product of two lengths. Thus, area is a derived quantity that can be expressed in terms of SI base units using square meters $\left(\text{m}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}={\text{m}}^{2}\right).$ Similarly, volume is a derived quantity that can be expressed in cubic meters $\left({\text{m}}^{3}\right).$ Speed is length per time; so in terms of SI base units, we could measure it in meters per second (m/s). Volume mass density (or just density) is mass per volume, which is expressed in terms of SI base units such as kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m 3 ). Angles can also be thought of as derived quantities because they can be defined as the ratio of the arc length subtended by two radii of a circle to the radius of the circle. This is how the radian is defined. Depending on your background and interests, you may be able to come up with other derived quantities, such as the mass flow rate (kg/s) or volume flow rate (m 3 /s) of a fluid, electric charge $\left(\text{A}·\text{s}\right),$ mass flux density $\text{[kg/}\left({\text{m}}^{2}·\text{s)],}$ and so on. We will see many more examples throughout this text. For now, the point is that every physical quantity can be derived from the seven base quantities in [link] , and the units of every physical quantity can be derived from the seven SI base units.

For the most part, we use SI units in this text. Non-SI units are used in a few applications in which they are in very common use, such as the measurement of temperature in degrees Celsius $\left(\text{°}\text{C}\right),$ the measurement of fluid volume in liters (L), and the measurement of energies of elementary particles in electron-volts (eV). Whenever non-SI units are discussed, they are tied to SI units through conversions. For example, 1 L is ${10}^{-3}{\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}}^{3}.$

Check out a comprehensive source of information on SI units at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty.

## Units of time, length, and mass: the second, meter, and kilogram

The initial chapters in this textbook are concerned with mechanics, fluids, and waves. In these subjects all pertinent physical quantities can be expressed in terms of the base units of length, mass, and time. Therefore, we now turn to a discussion of these three base units, leaving discussion of the others until they are needed later.

## The second

The SI unit for time, the second    (abbreviated s), has a long history. For many years it was defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. More recently, a new standard was adopted to gain greater accuracy and to define the second in terms of a nonvarying or constant physical phenomenon (because the solar day is getting longer as a result of the very gradual slowing of Earth’s rotation). Cesium atoms can be made to vibrate in a very steady way, and these vibrations can be readily observed and counted. In 1967, the second was redefined as the time required for 9,192,631,770 of these vibrations to occur ( [link] ). Note that this may seem like more precision than you would ever need, but it isn’t—GPSs rely on the precision of atomic clocks to be able to give you turn-by-turn directions on the surface of Earth, far from the satellites broadcasting their location.

Damping is provided by tuning the turbulence levels in the moving water using baffles.How it happens? Give me a labelled diagram of it.
A 10kg ball travelling at 4meter per second collides elastically in a head-on collision with a 2kg ball.What are (a)the velocities and (b)the total momentum of the balls after collision?
a)v1 8/3s&v2 20/3s. b)in elastic collision total momentum is conserved.
Bala
The displacement of the air molecules in sound wave is modeled with the wave function s(x,t)=5.00nmcos(91.54m−1x−3.14×104s−1t)s(x,t)=5.00nmcos(91.54m−1x−3.14×104s−1t) . (a) What is the wave speed of the sound wave? (b) What is the maximum speed of the air molecules as they oscillate in simple harmon
practical 1st year physics
huh
Luminous
Whats the formular for newton law of motion
f=ma
F=m×a Where F=force M=mass of a body of an object a=acceleration due to gravity
Abubakar
what is speed
distance travelled per unit of time is speed.
distance travelled in a particular direction it is.
Andrew
Speed is define as the distance move per unit time. Mathematically is given as Speed = distance/time Speed = s/t
Abubakar
speed is a vector quantity. It is defined distance per unit time.It's unit in c.g.s cm/s and in S.I. m/s.It’s dimension is LT^-1
Mukulika
formula for velocity
v=ms^-1 velocity=distance time
Cleophas
(p-a/v)(v-b)=nrt what is the dimension of a
Amraketa
velocity= displacement time
Gold
Velocity = speed/time
Abubakar
what are evasive medical diagnosis?
If the block is displaced to a position y , the net force becomes Fnet=k(y−y0)−mg=0Fnet=k(y−y0)−mg=0 . But we found that at the equilibrium position, mg=kΔy=ky0−ky1mg=kΔy=ky0−ky1 . Substituting for the weight in the equation yields. Show me an equation of graph.
Shaina
simple harmonic motion defination
how to easily memorize motion equation
Maharam
how speed destrog is uranium
where can we find practice problems?
I'm not well
YAZID
Sayed
can u tell me the expression for radial acceleeation
No
YAZID
Is equal to the square of the velocity divided by the radius of circular path of the object
Mukhtaar
how to find maximum acceleration and velocity of simple harmonic motion?
chander
how to find maximum acceleration and velocity of simple harmonic motion and where it occurres?
chander
you can use either motion equations or kinetic equation and potential equation .
lasitha
how destraction 1kg uranium
Sayed
A Radial Acceleration is defined as the upward movement of an object.
Andrew
A body of 2.0kg mass makes an elastic collision with another at rest and continues to more in the original direction but with 1/4 of its ori is the mass of the struck body?
pls help me solve this problem
bright
why do sound travel faster in the night than in the day
I believe because speed is a function of air density, and colder air is more dense
Jerry
At night air is denser because of humidity.
Clifton
Night air is cooler. Sound requires medium to travel so the denser the medium the fastest the sound travels. Humid air is denser then warmer air as in day.
Clifton
The humidity statement is misleading , colder air is more dense period.
Jerry
because there is no any other sound to reverberate with it so it clearly travel to lot of distance and also humidity and also due to denser air at night
Azam
please could you guys help me with physics best websites
Baje
because it is quiet at night. this takes us to the topic wave, it depends on the wave at that moment, which Echo's....sound travelled.
Andrew
because it is quite at night. this takes us to the topic wave , it depends on the wave at that the physics
mehreen
element radioactivit diffusion atomic radius alpha beta gamma these elements have more than 92 atomic mass start from uranium
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