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Figure is a schematic drawing of a hydraulic brake system. A foot is applied to the brake pedal with the force F1. It is transmitted to the pedal cylinder with the area A1 of 0.5 cm. The Pedal cylinder is connected to the hydraulic system with two wheel cylinders with an area A2 of 2.5 cm. Wheel cylinders create output force F2.
Hydraulic brakes use Pascal’s principle. The driver pushes the brake pedal, exerting a force that is increased by the simple lever and again by the hydraulic system. Each of the identical wheel cylinders receives the same pressure and, therefore, creates the same force output F 2 . The circular cross-sectional areas of the pedal and wheel cylinders are represented by A 1 and A 2 , respectively.


We are given the force F 1 applied to the pedal cylinder. The cross-sectional areas A 1 and A 2 can be calculated from their given diameters. Then we can use the following relationship to find the force F 2 :

F 1 A 1 = F 2 A 2 .

Manipulate this algebraically to get F 2 on one side and substitute known values.


Pascal’s principle applied to hydraulic systems is given by F 1 A 1 = F 2 A 2 :

F 2 = A 2 A 1 F 1 = π r 2 2 π r 1 2 F 1 = ( 1.25 cm ) 2 ( 0.250 cm ) 2 × 500 N = 1.25 × 10 4 N .


This value is the force exerted by each of the four wheel cylinders. Note that we can add as many wheel cylinders as we wish. If each has a 2.50-cm diameter, each will exert 1.25 × 10 4 N . A simple hydraulic system, as an example of a simple machine, can increase force but cannot do more work than is done on it. Work is force times distance moved, and the wheel cylinder moves through a smaller distance than the pedal cylinder. Furthermore, the more wheels added, the smaller the distance each one moves. Many hydraulic systems—such as power brakes and those in bulldozers—have a motorized pump that actually does most of the work in the system.

Check Your Understanding Would a hydraulic press still operate properly if a gas is used instead of a liquid?

Yes, it would still work, but since a gas is compressible, it would not operate as efficiently. When the force is applied, the gas would first compress and warm. Hence, the air in the brake lines must be bled out in order for the brakes to work properly.

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  • Pressure is force per unit area.
  • A change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all portions of the fluid and to the walls of its container.
  • A hydraulic system is an enclosed fluid system used to exert forces.

Conceptual questions

Suppose the master cylinder in a hydraulic system is at a greater height than the cylinder it is controlling. Explain how this will affect the force produced at the cylinder that is being controlled.

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How much pressure is transmitted in the hydraulic system considered in [link] ? Express your answer in atmospheres.

251 atm

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What force must be exerted on the master cylinder of a hydraulic lift to support the weight of a 2000-kg car (a large car) resting on a second cylinder? The master cylinder has a 2.00-cm diameter and the second cylinder has a 24.0-cm diameter.

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A host pours the remnants of several bottles of wine into a jug after a party. The host then inserts a cork with a 2.00-cm diameter into the bottle, placing it in direct contact with the wine. The host is amazed when the host pounds the cork into place and the bottom of the jug (with a 14.0-cm diameter) breaks away. Calculate the extra force exerted against the bottom if he pounded the cork with a 120-N force.

5.76 × 10 3 N extra force

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A certain hydraulic system is designed to exert a force 100 times as large as the one put into it. (a) What must be the ratio of the area of the cylinder that is being controlled to the area of the master cylinder? (b) What must be the ratio of their diameters? (c) By what factor is the distance through which the output force moves reduced relative to the distance through which the input force moves? Assume no losses due to friction.

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Verify that work input equals work output for a hydraulic system assuming no losses due to friction. Do this by showing that the distance the output force moves is reduced by the same factor that the output force is increased. Assume the volume of the fluid is constant. What effect would friction within the fluid and between components in the system have on the output force? How would this depend on whether or not the fluid is moving?

If the system is not moving, the friction would not play a role. With friction, we know there are losses, so that W o = W i W f ; therefore, the work output is less than the work input. In other words, to account for friction, you would need to push harder on the input piston than was calculated.

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Questions & Answers

definition of inertia
philip Reply
the reluctance of a body to start moving when it is at rest and to stop moving when it is in motion
An inherent property by virtue of which the body remains in its pure state or initial state
why current is not a vector quantity , whereas it have magnitude as well as direction.
Aniket Reply
the flow of current is not current
bcoz it doesn't satisfy the algabric laws of vectors
The Electric current can be defined as the dot product of the current density and the differential cross-sectional area vector : ... So the electric current is a scalar quantity . Scalars are related to tensors by the fact that a scalar is a tensor of order or rank zero .
what is binomial theorem
Tollum Reply
hello are you ready to ask aquestion?
Saadaq Reply
what is binary operations
What is the formula to calculat parallel forces that acts in opposite direction?
Martan Reply
position, velocity and acceleration of vector
Manuel Reply
*a plane flies with a velocity of 1000km/hr in a direction North60degree east.find it effective velocity in the easterly and northerly direction.*
hello Lydia.
What is momentum
A rail way truck of mass 2400kg is hung onto a stationary trunk on a level track and collides with it at 4.7m|s. After collision the two trunk move together with a common speed of 1.2m|s. Calculate the mass of the stationary trunk
Ekuri Reply
I need the solving for this question
is the eye the same like the camera
I can't understand
same here please
I think the question is that ,,, the working principal of eye and camera same or not?
yes i think is same as the camera
what are the dimensions of surface tension
why is the "_" sign used for a wave to the right instead of to the left?
why classical mechanics is necessary for graduate students?
khyam Reply
classical mechanics?
principle of superposition?
Naveen Reply
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Two Masses,m and 2m,approach each along a path at right angles to each other .After collision,they stick together and move off at 2m/s at angle 37° to the original direction of the mass m. What where the initial speeds of the two particles
2m & m initial velocity 1.8m/s & 4.8m/s respectively,apply conservation of linear momentum in two perpendicular directions.
A body on circular orbit makes an angular displacement given by teta(t)=2(t)+5(t)+5.if time t is in seconds calculate the angular velocity at t=2s
2+5+0=7sec differentiate above equation w.r.t time, as angular velocity is rate of change of angular displacement.
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
Daniel Reply
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
Goodness Reply
(10/6) ÷0.4=4.167 per sec
what is the formula for pressure?
Goodness Reply
force is newtom
and area is meter squared
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
who is Newton?
John Reply
a scientist
that discovered law of motion
but who is Isaac newton?
a postmodernist would say that he did not discover them, he made them up and they're not actually a reality in itself, but a mere construct by which we decided to observe the word around us
Besides his work on universal gravitation (gravity), Newton developed the 3 laws of motion which form the basic principles of modern physics. His discovery of calculus led the way to more powerful methods of solving mathematical problems. His work in optics included the study of white light and
and the color spectrum
Practice Key Terms 3

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