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Conceptual questions

You are given two wind instruments of identical length. One is open at both ends, whereas the other is closed at one end. Which is able to produce the lowest frequency?

The fundamental wavelength of a tube open at each end is 2 L , where the wavelength of a tube open at one end and closed at one end is 4 L . The tube open at one end has the lower fundamental frequency, assuming the speed of sound is the same in both tubes.

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What is the difference between an overtone and a harmonic? Are all harmonics overtones? Are all overtones harmonics?

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Two identical columns, open at both ends, are in separate rooms. In room A , the temperature is T = 20 ° C and in room B , the temperature is T = 25 ° C . A speaker is attached to the end of each tube, causing the tubes to resonate at the fundamental frequency. Is the frequency the same for both tubes? Which has the higher frequency?

The wavelength in each is twice the length of the tube. The frequency depends on the wavelength and the speed of the sound waves. The frequency in room B is higher because the speed of sound is higher where the temperature is higher.

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Problems

(a) What is the fundamental frequency of a 0.672-m-long tube, open at both ends, on a day when the speed of sound is 344 m/s? (b) What is the frequency of its second harmonic?

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What is the length of a tube that has a fundamental frequency of 176 Hz and a first overtone of 352 Hz if the speed of sound is 343 m/s?

0.974 m

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The ear canal resonates like a tube closed at one end. (See [link]Figure 17_03_HumEar[/link].) If ear canals range in length from 1.80 to 2.60 cm in an average population, what is the range of fundamental resonant frequencies? Take air temperature to be 37.0 ° C, which is the same as body temperature.

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Calculate the first overtone in an ear canal, which resonates like a 2.40-cm-long tube closed at one end, by taking air temperature to be 37.0 ° C . Is the ear particularly sensitive to such a frequency? (The resonances of the ear canal are complicated by its nonuniform shape, which we shall ignore.)

11.0 kHz; The ear is not particularly sensitive to this frequency, so we don’t hear overtones due to the ear canal.

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A crude approximation of voice production is to consider the breathing passages and mouth to be a resonating tube closed at one end. (a) What is the fundamental frequency if the tube is 0.240 m long, by taking air temperature to be 37.0 ° C ? (b) What would this frequency become if the person replaced the air with helium? Assume the same temperature dependence for helium as for air.

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A 4.0-m-long pipe, open at one end and closed at one end, is in a room where the temperature is T = 22 ° C . A speaker capable of producing variable frequencies is placed at the open end and is used to cause the tube to resonate. (a) What is the wavelength and the frequency of the fundamental frequency? (b) What is the frequency and wavelength of the first overtone?

a. v = 344.08 m/s, λ 1 = 16.00 m, f 1 = 21.51 Hz;
b. λ 3 = 5.33 m, f 3 = 64.56 Hz

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A 4.0-m-long pipe, open at both ends, is placed in a room where the temperature is T = 25 ° C . A speaker capable of producing variable frequencies is placed at the open end and is used to cause the tube to resonate. (a) What are the wavelength and the frequency of the fundamental frequency? (b) What are the frequency and wavelength of the first overtone?

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A nylon guitar string is fixed between two lab posts 2.00 m apart. The string has a linear mass density of μ = 7.20 g/m and is placed under a tension of 160.00 N. The string is placed next to a tube, open at both ends, of length L . The string is plucked and the tube resonates at the n = 3 mode. The speed of sound is 343 m/s. What is the length of the tube?

v string = 149.07 m/s, λ 3 = 1.33 m, f 3 = 112.08 Hz λ 1 = v f 1 , L = 1.53 m

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A 512-Hz tuning fork is struck and placed next to a tube with a movable piston, creating a tube with a variable length. The piston is slid down the pipe and resonance is reached when the piston is 115.50 cm from the open end. The next resonance is reached when the piston is 82.50 cm from the open end. (a) What is the speed of sound in the tube? (b) How far from the open end will the piston cause the next mode of resonance?

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Students in a physics lab are asked to find the length of an air column in a tube closed at one end that has a fundamental frequency of 256 Hz. They hold the tube vertically and fill it with water to the top, then lower the water while a 256-Hz tuning fork is rung and listen for the first resonance. (a) What is the air temperature if the resonance occurs for a length of 0.336 m? (b) At what length will they observe the second resonance (first overtone)?

a. 22.0 °C ; b. 1.01 m

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Questions & Answers

Suppose the master cylinder in a hydraulic system is at a greater height than the cylinder it is controlling. Explain how this will affect the force produced at the cylinder that is being controlled.
Louise Reply
Why is popo less than atmospheric? Why is popo greater than pipi?
Louise
The old rubber boot shown below has two leaks. To what maximum height can the water squirt from Leak 1? How does the velocity of water emerging from Leak 2 differ from that of Leak 1? Explain your responses in terms of energy.
Louise
David rolled down the window on his car while driving on the freeway. An empty plastic bag on the floor promptly flew out the window. Explain why.
Louise Reply
the pressure differential exerted a force on the bag greater than the gravitational force holding it on the floor.
gtitboi
what is angular velocity
Sthandazile Reply
The rate of change in angular displacement is defined as angular velocity.
Manorama
a length of copper wire was measured to be 50m with an uncertainty of 1cm, the thickness of the wire was measured to be 1mm with an uncertainty of 0.01mm, using a micrometer screw gauge, calculate the of copper wire used
Nicole Reply
What is the answer please
Mustapha
If centripetal force is directed towards the center,why do you feel that you're thrown away from the center as a car goes around a curve? Explain
Maira Reply
if there is a centripetal force it means that there's also a centripetal acceleration, getting back to your question, just imagine what happens if you pull out of a car when it's quickly moving or when you try to stop when you are running fast, anyway, we notice that there's always a certain force..
Lindomar
... that tends to fight for its previous direction when you try to attribute to it an opposite one ou try to stop it.The same thing also happens whe a car goes around a curve, the car it self is designed to a"straight line"(look at the position of its tyres, mainly the back side ones), so...
Lindomar
... whenever it goes around a curve, it tends to throw away its the occupiers, it's given to the fact that it must interrupt its initial direction and take a new one.
Lindomar
Which kind of wave does wind form
Matthias Reply
calculate the distance you will travel if you mantain an average speed of 10N m/s for 40 second
Abdulai Reply
400m/s
Feng
hw to calculate the momentum of the 2000.0 elephant change hunter at a speed of 7.50 m/s
Kingsley Reply
how many cm makes 1 inches
Hassan Reply
2.5
omwoyo
2.54cm=1inche
omwoyo
how do we convert from m/s to km/hr
Toni Reply
When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it may be best to stay near the middle. Explain why?
SANA Reply
Explain why polarization does not occur in sound
Nuradeen
one ship sailing east with a speed of 7.5m/s passes a certain point at 8am and a second ship sailing north at the same speed passed the same point at 9.30am at what distance are they closet together and what is the distance between them then
Kuber Reply
density of a subtance is given as 360g/cm,put it in it s.i unit form
Linda Reply
if m2 is twice of m1. find the ration of kinetic energy in COM system to lab system of elastic collision
Raman Reply
What is a volt equal to?
Clifton Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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