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(a) The origin of the coordinate system is at the top of the hill with y- axis vertically upward and the x- axis horizontal. By looking at the trajectory of the skier, the x- component of the acceleration is positive and the y- component is negative. Since the angle is 15 ° down the slope, we find

a x = ( 2.1 m/ s 2 ) cos ( 15 ° ) = 2.0 m/ s 2
a y = ( −2.1 m/ s 2 ) sin 15 ° = −0.54 m/ s 2 .

Inserting the initial position and velocity into [link] and [link] for x , we have

x ( t ) = 75.0 m + ( 4.1 m/s ) t + 1 2 ( 2.0 m/ s 2 ) t 2
v x ( t ) = 4.1 m/s + ( 2.0 m/ s 2 ) t .

For y , we have

y ( t ) = −50.0 m + ( −1.1 m/s ) t + 1 2 ( −0.54 m/ s 2 ) t 2
v y ( t ) = −1.1 m/s + ( −0.54 m/ s 2 ) t .

(b) Now that we have the equations of motion for x and y as functions of time, we can evaluate them at t = 10.0 s:

x ( 10.0 s ) = 75.0 m + ( 4.1 m/ s 2 ) ( 10.0 s ) + 1 2 ( 2.0 m/ s 2 ) ( 10.0 s ) 2 = 216.0 m
v x ( 10.0 s ) = 4.1 m/s + ( 2.0 m/ s 2 ) ( 10.0 s ) = 24.1 m /s
y ( 10.0 s ) = −50.0 m + ( −1.1 m/s ) ( 10.0 s ) + 1 2 ( −0.54 m/ s 2 ) ( 10.0 s ) 2 = −88.0 m
v y ( 10.0 s ) = −1.1 m/s + ( −0.54 m/ s 2 ) ( 10.0 s ) = −6.5 m/s .

The position and velocity at t = 10.0 s are, finally,

r ( 10.0 s ) = ( 216.0 i ^ 88.0 j ^ ) m
v ( 10.0 s ) = ( 24.1 i ^ 6.5 j ^ ) m/s .

The magnitude of the velocity of the skier at 10.0 s is 25 m/s, which is 60 mi/h.


It is useful to know that, given the initial conditions of position, velocity, and acceleration of an object, we can find the position, velocity, and acceleration at any later time.

With [link] through [link] we have completed the set of expressions for the position, velocity, and acceleration of an object moving in two or three dimensions. If the trajectories of the objects look something like the “Red Arrows” in the opening picture for the chapter, then the expressions for the position, velocity, and acceleration can be quite complicated. In the sections to follow we examine two special cases of motion in two and three dimensions by looking at projectile motion and circular motion.

At this University of Colorado Boulder website , you can explore the position velocity and acceleration of a ladybug with an interactive simulation that allows you to change these parameters.


  • In two and three dimensions, the acceleration vector can have an arbitrary direction and does not necessarily point along a given component of the velocity.
  • The instantaneous acceleration is produced by a change in velocity taken over a very short (infinitesimal) time period. Instantaneous acceleration is a vector in two or three dimensions. It is found by taking the derivative of the velocity function with respect to time.
  • In three dimensions, acceleration a ( t ) can be written as a vector sum of the one-dimensional accelerations a x ( t ) , a y ( t ) , and a z ( t ) along the x- , y -, and z- axes.
  • The kinematic equations for constant acceleration can be written as the vector sum of the constant acceleration equations in the x , y , and z directions.

Conceptual questions

If the position function of a particle is a linear function of time, what can be said about its acceleration?

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If an object has a constant x -component of the velocity and suddenly experiences an acceleration in the y direction, does the x- component of its velocity change?

No, motions in perpendicular directions are independent.

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If an object has a constant x- component of velocity and suddenly experiences an acceleration at an angle of 70 ° in the x direction, does the x- component of velocity change?

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The position of a particle is r ( t ) = ( 3.0 t 2 i ^ + 5.0 j ^ 6.0 t k ^ ) m . (a) Determine its velocity and acceleration as functions of time. (b) What are its velocity and acceleration at time t = 0?

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A particle’s acceleration is ( 4.0 i ^ + 3.0 j ^ ) m/ s 2 . At t = 0, its position and velocity are zero. (a) What are the particle’s position and velocity as functions of time? (b) Find the equation of the path of the particle. Draw the x- and y- axes and sketch the trajectory of the particle.

a. v ( t ) = ( 4.0 t i ^ + 3.0 t j ^ ) m/s , r ( t ) = ( 2.0 t 2 i ^ + 3 2 t 2 j ^ ) m ,
b. x ( t ) = 2.0 t 2 m, y ( t ) = 3 2 t 2 m, t 2 = x 2 y = 3 4 x
A graph of the linear function y equals 3 quarters x. The graph is a straight, positive slope line through the origin.

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A boat leaves the dock at t = 0 and heads out into a lake with an acceleration of 2.0 m/ s 2 i ^ . A strong wind is pushing the boat, giving it an additional velocity of 2.0 m/s i ^ + 1.0 m/s j ^ . (a) What is the velocity of the boat at t = 10 s? (b) What is the position of the boat at t = 10s? Draw a sketch of the boat’s trajectory and position at t = 10 s, showing the x- and y -axes.

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The position of a particle for t >0 is given by r ( t ) = ( 3.0 t 2 i ^ 7.0 t 3 j ^ 5.0 t −2 k ^ ) m . (a) What is the velocity as a function of time? (b) What is the acceleration as a function of time? (c) What is the particle’s velocity at t = 2.0 s? (d) What is its speed at t = 1.0 s and t = 3.0 s? (e) What is the average velocity between t = 1.0 s and t = 2.0 s?

a. v ( t ) = ( 6.0 t i ^ 21.0 t 2 j ^ + 10.0 t −3 k ^ ) m/s ,
b. a ( t ) = ( 6.0 i ^ 42.0 t j ^ 30 t −4 k ^ ) m/ s 2 ,
c. v ( 2.0 s ) = ( 12.0 i ^ 84.0 j ^ + 1.25 k ^ ) m/s ,
d. v ( 1.0 s ) = 6.0 i ^ 21.0 j ^ + 10.0 k ^ m/s , | v ( 1.0 s ) | = 24.0 m/s
v ( 3.0 s ) = 18.0 i ^ 189.0 j ^ + 0.37 k ^ m/s , | v ( 3.0 s ) | = 199.0 m/s ,
e. r ( t ) = ( 3.0 t 2 i ^ 7.0 t 3 j ^ 5.0 t −2 k ^ ) cm
v avg = 9.0 i ^ 49.0 j ^ 6.3 k ^ m/s

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The acceleration of a particle is a constant. At t = 0 the velocity of the particle is ( 10 i ^ + 20 j ^ ) m/s . At t = 4 s the velocity is 10 j ^ m/s . (a) What is the particle’s acceleration? (b) How do the position and velocity vary with time? Assume the particle is initially at the origin.

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A particle has a position function r ( t ) = cos ( 1.0 t ) i ^ + sin ( 1.0 t ) j ^ + t k ^ , where the arguments of the cosine and sine functions are in radians. (a) What is the velocity vector? (b) What is the acceleration vector?

a. v ( t ) = −sin ( 1.0 t ) i ^ + cos ( 1.0 t ) j ^ + k ^ , b. a ( t ) = −cos ( 1.0 t ) i ^ sin ( 1.0 t ) j ^

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A Lockheed Martin F-35 II Lighting jet takes off from an aircraft carrier with a runway length of 90 m and a takeoff speed 70 m/s at the end of the runway. Jets are catapulted into airspace from the deck of an aircraft carrier with two sources of propulsion: the jet propulsion and the catapult. At the point of leaving the deck of the aircraft carrier, the F-35’s acceleration decreases to a constant acceleration of 5.0 m/ s 2 at 30 ° with respect to the horizontal. (a) What is the initial acceleration of the F-35 on the deck of the aircraft carrier to make it airborne? (b) Write the position and velocity of the F-35 in unit vector notation from the point it leaves the deck of the aircraft carrier. (c) At what altitude is the fighter 5.0 s after it leaves the deck of the aircraft carrier? (d) What is its velocity and speed at this time? (e) How far has it traveled horizontally?

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Questions & Answers

In Example, we calculated the final speed of a roller coaster that descended 20 m in height and had an initial speed of 5 m/s downhill. Suppose the roller coaster had had an initial speed of 5 m/s uphill instead, and it coasted uphill, stopped, and then rolled back down to a final point 20 m bel
tan Reply
A steel lift column in a service station is 4 meter long and .2 meter in diameter. Young's modulus for steel is 20 X 1010N/m2.  By how much does the column shrink when a 5000- kg truck is on it?
Andiswa Reply
what exactly is a transverse wave
Dharmee Reply
does newton's first law mean that we don't need gravity to be attracted
Dharmee Reply
no, it just means that a brick isn't gonna move unless something makes it move. if in the air, moves down because of gravity. if on floor, doesn't move unless something has it move, like a hand pushing the brick. first law is that an object will stay at rest or motion unless another force acts upon
yeah but once gravity has already been exerted .. i am saying that it need not be constantly exerted now according to newtons first law
gravity is constantly being exerted. gravity is the force of attractiveness between two objects. you and another person exert a force on each other but the reason you two don't come together is because earth's effect on both of you is much greater
maybe the reason we dont come together is our inertia only and not gravity
this is the definition of inertia: a property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.
the earth has a much higher affect on us force wise that me and you together on each other, that's why we don't attract, relatively speaking of course
quite clear explanation but i just want my mind to be open to any theory at all .. its possible that maybe gravity does not exist at all or even the opposite can be true .. i dont want a fixed state of mind thats all
why wouldn't gravity exist? gravity is just the attractive force between two objects, at least to my understanding.
earth moves in a circular motion so yes it does need a constant force for a circular motion but incase of objects on earth i feel maybe there is no force of attraction towards the centre and its our inertia forcing us to stay at a point as once gravity had acted on the object
why should it exist .. i mean its all an assumption and the evidences are empirical
We have equations to prove it and lies of evidence to support. we orbit because we have a velocity and the sun is pulling us. Gravity is a law, we know it exists.
yeah sure there are equations but they are based on observations and assumptions
g is obtained by a simple pendulum experiment ...
gravity is tested by dropping a rock...
and also there were so many newtonian laws proved wrong by einstein . jus saying that its a law doesnt mean it cant be wrong
pendulum is good for showing energy transfer, here is an article on the detection of gravitational waves: ***ligo.org/detections.php
yeah but g is calculated by pendulum oscillations ..
thats what .. einstein s fabric model explains that force of attraction by sun on earth but i am talking about force of attraction by earth on objects on earth
no... this is how gravity is calculated:F = G*((m sub 1*m sub 2)/r^2)
gravitational constant is obtained EXPERIMENTALLY
the G part
Calculate the time of one oscillation or the period (T) by dividing the total time by the number of oscillations you counted. Use your calculated (T) along with the exact length of the pendulum (L) in the above formula to find "g." This is your measured value for "g."
G is the universal gravitational constant. F is the gravity
search up the gravity equation
yeahh G is obtained experimentally
sure yes
thats what .. after all its EXPERIMENTALLY calculated so its empirical
yes... so where do we disagree?
its empirical whixh means it can be proved wrong
so cant just say why wouldnt gravity exists
the constant, sure but extremely unlikely it is wrong. gravity however exists, there are equations and loads of support surrounding the concept. unfortunately I don't have a high enough background in physics but have this discussion with a physicist
can u suggest a platform where i can?
stack overflow
stack exchange, physics section***
its an app?
there is! it is also a website as well
nice talking to you
likewise :)
What is the percentage by massof oxygen in Al2(so4)3
Isiguzo Reply
A spring with 50g mass suspended from it,has its length extended by 7.8cm 1.1 determine the spring constant? 1.2 it is observed that the length of the spring decreases by 4.7cm,from its original length, when a toy is place on top of it. what is the mass of the toy?
Silindelo Reply
solution mass = 50g= 0.05kg force= 50 x 10= 500N extension= 7.8cm = 0.078m using the formula Force= Ke K = force/extension 500/.078 = 6410.25N/m
1.2 Decrease in length= -4.7cm =-0.047m mass=? acceleration due to gravity= 10 force = K x e force= mass x acceleration m x a = K x e mass = K x e/acceleration = 6410.25 x 0.047/10 = 30.13kg
1.1 6.28Nm-¹
1.2 0.03kg or 30g
I used g=9.8ms-²
you should explain how yoy got the answer Anita
with the fomular F=mg I got the value for force because now the force acting on the spring is the weight of the object and also you have to convert from grams to kilograms and cm to meter
so the spring constant K=F/e where F is force and e is extension
In this first example why didn't we use P=P° + ¶hg where ¶ is density
Anita Reply
Density = force applied x area p=fA =p = mga, then a=h therefore substitute =p =mgh
Please correct me
sorry I had a little typo in my question
Density = m/v (mass/volume) simple as that
Hlehle vilakazi how density is equal to force * area and you also wrote p= mgh which is machenical potential energy ? how ?
what is wave
Alfred Reply
who can state the third equation of motion
wave is a distrubance that travelled in medium from one point to another with carry energy .
wave is a periodic disturbance that carries energy from one medium to another..
what exactly is a transverse wave then?
two particles rotate in a rigid body then acceleration will be ?
kinza Reply
same acceleration for all particles because all prticles will be moving with same angular velocity.so at any time interval u find same acceleration of all the prticles
what is electromagnetism
David Reply
It is the study of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... It includes the electric force, which pushes all charged particles, and the magnetic force, which only pushes moving charges.
what is units?
Subhajit Reply
units as in how
What is th formular for force
Joseph Reply
F = m x a
State newton's second law of motion
Seth Reply
can u tell me I cant remember
force is equal to mass times acceleration
The acceleration of a system is directly proportional to the and in the same direction as the external force acting on the system and inversely proportional to its mass that is f=ma
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force exerted on that body.
The uniform seesaw shown below is balanced on a fulcrum located 3.0 m from the left end. The smaller boy on the right has a mass of 40 kg and the bigger boy on the left has a mass 80 kg. What is the mass of the board?
Asad Reply
Consider a wave produced on a stretched spring by holding one end and shaking it up and down. Does the wavelength depend on the distance you move your hand up and down?
Sohail Reply
no, only the frequency and the material of the spring
how to read physics ncert?
beat line read important. line under line
Practice Key Terms 1

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